How would you frame the SLA research?

Hi All,

This week you have 2 questions to answer.

1. How would you frame the SLA research?
2. Make a hypothesis on the following data from your book(p.18). After examining the following data write your own hypothesis about the acquisition of "plural in English". Remember the 4 hypotheses we studied on the acquisition of "continuous" in English.

1) I bought a couple of towel.
2) There is many kind of way you make baklava.
3) Just a few month he will finish from his studies.
4) There is a lot of mosquito.
5) How many hour?

Good luck,

Tuncer Can


Anonymous said...

1-All foreign language teachers must know; the difficulties that he/she is going to be faced with and the best ways of teaching a language. Teachers; must know what students do while learning and could see the way that a student is going to pass from while learning. A teacher should know what a student could learn at the point where he is and should know when the best is time to acquire the thing that we want ( when? how? where?.) I hope this lesson will help..
2-The acquisition of plural in English is never taught to the person who these sentences are belongs to. In those 5 sentences there are never used ‘s’ or ‘are’ words. If a person uses plural in a wrong way that will be a different situation but in these sentences all words are used in singular. So I could say he is never been taught the plural form of a word or the differences between ‘are’ and ‘is.’ The person’s 1st language may also not have plural words so he thinks all languages are the same as his 1st, and can’t see his mistakes while talking his 2nd language.

Anonymous said...

3233050007 (ÇAP)

1) The goal of SLA research is not only understanding how second, third, fourth…etc languages are learnt and used, but also why some learners cannot acquire the second languages while others do.
SLA is an interdisciplinary field. To be able to communicate in the second language, the learner has to master some competences such as mastering the sound system, the grammar, the meaning as well as the communicative competences. That’s why, SLA is related to many disciplines: phonology, syntax, morphology, semantics and pragmatics.
Another question that SLA tries to respond is that how can we understand that the second language is acquired? We know that when we talk about acquisition, we refer to a process that is unconscious. However, a learner who has acquired his / her mother tongue will try to integrate the second language with the L1. Thus, he / she will construct an interlanguage. That’s also in SLA’s research.

2) As far as I read from the book these sentences are uttered by the Arabic speakers. When the utterances are observed, it is remarked that apart of the word "studies" (which is not an error in the sentence) the plural form is never used.
In my opinion, these speakers use an interlanguage and they constructed their new knowledge in this case the plural forms in English) on the old information (Arabic). For example in Turkish we don't say "Kaç saatler" (how many hour?) or "çok sinekler". A native Turkish speaker who is learning English will transfer this knowledge to English. As a result, there the learner will make mistakes. Though I don't know Arabic, this might be the reason of those Arabic peoples mistake.

Anonymous said...

The importance of SLA research lies in the possible and hpypothetical insight into second language acquisition: how it is learned and why difficulties can exist arising by interlanguage, individual errors or cross-cultural communication. To understand the field of SLA, data analysis and data interpretation is being used whereas a distinction between data from composition and data from convesation exists.
Here the data analysis is brought closer in the example of a native Arabic speaker by acquiring the "plural in English". My hpyothesis state as follows:
1.When quantifyer before a noun no "s" -as in "kind of, how many (support: sentence 3., 4., 17., 19.)
2. When a number before a noun use "s" (support: sentence 12. and 18.)
3. When quantifyer is singular no "s" (support: sentence 2. and 7.)
4. When verb is singular after "there" use no "s" (support: sentence 4. and 9.)
5. The speaker could have a certain problem with the word "month". He uses no "s" according to the hypothesis 1for "month" in sentence 14. but despite this hypothesis he forms "year" into "years" which should have been used wrongly. This should be judged by a data source out of composition or conversation. If it came from conversational data it could be a pronunciaton mistake/error or even a simplification. Otherwise it could be either an individual problem or an interlanguage error because maybe the word "month" does only exist in the singular form in Arabic!!!

Anonymous said...

1)SLA is the study of how second languages are learned and used as we know.SLA research is all the investigations on SLA and on the fields that relevant to this,and this aims to get the answers of how to acq�ire languages different from native languages and during this acquisition process what changes come into existence.Not only with these sides but also it also contains other area of language like linguistic.sociology,ethnics,cultures�All in all,SLA researches are concerning all the activities and processes in the name of language like learning-teaching-acquiring.Also these researches aim to find theories about the language acquisition to make thi process easy nd triying to find convincing answers and solutions to probable acquisition problems�

2)As we studied last week,while learning a foreign language,learners employ various strategies to develop his interlanguage and sometimes learners can make their own interlanguage rules.As in the �acquisition of continious� they can make up their own rules or according to their associations they follow different way making sentences.But sometimes meanings of their utterances are not fully correct ,this stems from L1 interference or false generalisations.When we look at your question about �plural in English�and if we set up an hypothesis,I can say that here the learners had made their rules and generalisation over the usage of Quantifiers because when we look at the examples you gave all sentences have at least one type of quantifiers like �a couple of,many kind of,a few, a lot of� According to learners rule,when thereis a quantifier or quantifier-like word the learners do not put the �-s� the plural maker maybe they had made a rule (generalisation) for these like When there is a quantifier,dont put the �-s� after the nouns.So with doing this they make up their own interlanguage rules,but this interlanguage data is wrong and potentially misleads them.


Anonymous said...

*1*second language acquisition ensures meaningful interaction in the target language-not in mother tongue-also it supplies comprehensible input. if the second language becomes meaningless,learning would not be created. people learn a language by seeing ther environment(family,friends etc.) so they dont have to study at home for their first language,it occurs unconsiously. But when it comes to learn a second language ıt becomes hard to achieve it. there is a need for formal training.Therefore teachers should be aware of making learning a second language incomprehensible. students will compare or try to translate directly the second language with their first language,hence it makes students to create more anxiety and less learning.so SLA conveys a new way against to this. the instructor should supply comprehensible input in low anxiety,besides, should not force them and correct the production of the learners.SLA research will offer varieties of concepts that will help teachers to present and create a better impression in their own classes.Also it ensures new ideas for classroom use.
*2*the data about plurals shows us that when people start to communicate in their second language they come across with wrong language usage.The native arabic speaker sometimes use 's' with right nouns but sometimes wrong.ıt's because of interlanguage. because as ı have experienced when we start to talk in second language,in our mind we think it in our first language but then we translate it directly into second language. firstly maybe the arabic speaker could not pronounce the nouns-ıt becomes hard for him-while he uses them with 's' or he just learned that when there is a number-bigger than 1- there should be an 's' after the noun.secondly he doesn't comprehend that 'a lot' means very much. especially he didnt use s after 'of's e.g.many kind of way besides he didnt use s after how many too.ı think while he was learning english he gave importance on numbers,he had more input of it.all languages have their own rules so make clear them in our minds is difficult.

Anonymous said...

1- As it is known, SLA investigates; how second language is learned or (acquired?), how does the native language of the speaker affect the way he learns a second language and maybe the most important of those: is it possible for us to convert learning into acquisition?…

As acquisition is something smt. informal and needs no study, when smt. is acquired (unconsciously) there is no problem to use it.We don’t even think about what we are doing while using the acquired information.As we have learned so far, communication is smt like this explanation.It is spontaneous and the structures and rules never come our minds while speaking Turkish.So, acqusition means being exposed to the language we aim to speak.That’s why people going to Germany from Turkey learn the language easier.

When it comes to think about how can we make use of SLA in our classes,we should consider our way of teaching.If our style is nothing more than making our students just parroting the rules, learning is doomed to be imprisoned in class, when te course ends the learning stops.Only if we try to expose them to some meaningful,communicative way of teaching, learning will have the chance to be stil alive outside the classroom.We may divide the class into groups and give them a assingment from real life to complete so as to make them be exposed to the target languge.This is how acquisition comes out and it is clear that the acquired inf. is more likely to be remembered and to be used in real conversations.

SLA also help a teacher to have the control of the students’ learning process, knowing that real aquisition takes some time causes him to wait and to be patient about the mistakes as he also has the knowledge of “interlanguage analysis”which SLA highly focuses.
As a result , it is easy to understand that SLA is something to be given importance while teaching, otherwise, all taught staff in class become useless.

2-These five sentences have problems in the use of plurals in English. I think, acquisition of this rule for a non-native speaker depends on interlanguage.Because most of such mistakes are done because of L1 influnce.The learners tries to make a comparison of the grammars of his native lang and the second lang he is learning.

I guess the problem here is not thinking from the aspect of English-like languages which make nouns plural even when they come after phrases that already makes us know that it is plural.However;it is comletely correct in Turkish.As you know we don’t say “bir çift havlular” in Turkish we say”bir çift havlu”.And other four examples are similar to this one.Like; “many kinds” vs. “bir çok tür” , “ a few months” vs. “birkaç ay”, a lot of mosquitos” vs. “bir çok sivrisinek”, “how many hours” vs. “kaç saat?”

So, my hypothesis is that the learner migt try to use the rule:”There is no need to make the noun plural if there is a phrase or a word already showing that the noun is more than one”(which is true in his own language)while using the second language.


Anonymous said...

As it is a branch studying how second language is learnt SLA has a great importance for language teachers. In my opinion, it tries to uncover the hidden sides of learning second languages procedure. As the name suggests, second language learning is different from the native languages. Sometimes learners construct their own rules, make generalizations and even overgeneralizations. All those, in one way, affect the whole learning procedure. In order to be able to have an effective lessons, knowledge of SLA is indispensable for teachers. With the aid of SLA, we can figure out the difficulties thatlearners are facing and also we can make some guesses about the underlying reasons of those difficulties. Again with the help of SLA we can analyse whether our students are making systematic errors or just a slip of tonque resulted from carelessness. As I tried to exemplfy, SLA is really needed for better teaching/ learning experiences.

My hypothesis in this situation is that the learner has constructed a plural system by himself which can be stated as ‘ no need to put (-s) to a word which is preceded by quantifiers that already have plural meanings in themselves. Each of the sentence you’ve given to us seems to confirm this hypothesis. Of course further investigation is necessary in order to reach an acceptable conclusion.


Anonymous said...

1- Acquisition as the process of 'having' language (especially L1) takes us to the unending miracles of human brain; Chomsky and his redefined Language Acquisition Device, Pavlov's classical conditioning and all the researches on psychology and linguistics simultaneously with the brain surgery add up to our knowledge of this verb; 'have'. There has always been the need for people 'having' 2 or more languages. And this phenomenon has become an area of research today. Day by day we need more to that kind of people and supplying this need in the shortest time necessitates to turn learning into acquisition and making people 'have' second language. SLA research from this perspective tries to understand the process of L1 acquisition and change the class situation, material and procedures with cirriculum for a native and L1-like 'having' of L2.

2- Just like the acquisition of 'continuous' that is shaped according to the place of verb or the inclusion of overt subject or object in the sentence taught and their differences with the target sentences and usages; and the effect of L1 when the 'having' is SLA (interlanguage domain); the acquisition of plural in English is also a matter of ambiguity. The errors resulting from usage.. Cariene Arabics; pluralization was depending on the use of quantifying phrases or nonnumerical quantifying words before nouns. In Turkish, the same situation is like following,

8 kalem/ kalemler

like the 'nine month' and 'a couple of towel .. L1's effect is fascinating. As we always say, 'Linguistics(LA) is fascinating!'


Anonymous said...

1)))second language can be learned,gained as natıve language(L1)is learned.so sla research supllıes an envıronment ın whıch L2 is spoken as natıve language.while learning their native language,students make some schemas or wrıte theır own hyphothesıs in their minds.so sla makes students gain or practice these while learning a second language.as a result,as i undrstood,sla is a research which makes people believe that L2 and even L3,L4 can be learned as their natıve language.so sla ınterests ıs not only language ıtself as grammer,but also dıfferent sıdes of language wıth socıety,background of people`s knowledge etc.

2)))all the sentences are non englısh lıke.
hypothesis 1-as sometımes pluralıty is made accordıng to the articles(a,an),when a,an are seen,`s` is not used in at the and of the noun(grammatıcal)
hypothesıs 2-as nouns can not be saıd ın plural forms in arabic,turkısh etc.pluralıty ıs not used ın englısh as ın theır natıve language.
hypothesıs 3-as the quantıfıers gıve meanıng(that ıs they show that meanıng ıs plural)there ıs no need to use plural `s` at the and of the noun.
hypothesıs 4-for learners ıt ıs ımportant to gıve meanng,that ıs grammer ıs not as ımportant as meanıng especıally for speakers.as the meanıng can be gıven wıthout usıng `s`,the pluralıty can be sugnıfıed lıke these sentences,whıle quantıfıers are used.3231060009

Anonymous said...

1)Second language acquisition is a process which comes after the native language,so it is second language.When you learn a lang.through a direct contact with its native speakers it is sla.
While we learn second language,we learn its phonology,morphology,semantics,syntax so it is a long process.SLA research looks how we learn these parts of the other languages and what we bring from our native language,what cultural events effect our SLA and also tries to understand the effect of our psychology.SLA research tries to understand the differences and similarities between our acquisition of L1 and Second language.

2) 1.when a quantifier is used before a noun,there is no 's' as in a few month,how many ticket,many kind.
-this is because of the transfer of the data they have in their native language I think.For example in Turkish after a plural noun we do not use a plural suffix.I mean a few months-we do not say bir kaç aylar in turkish we say birkaç ay.
2.When a number is used before a noun there seems the correct use of 's' as in four days,two mountains,200000 telephone lines...
I think these are because of L1 influence on plurals.


Anonymous said...

1''' In my opinion the aim of SLA(second language acquisition) is to make language acquisition very near to language learning.For this,SLA researches contain the order of language learning.By he help of this information,we,as English teachers,teach English as if their mother-tongue(At least some teachers try it.)

2'''I think these mistakes are because of L1 influence.I mean to miss "s" is the gramatic difference between one`s native language and English.For example,in our language we can not say 'bir çift havlular';so we sometimes have problem while adding's' to this kind of nouns.
The reason of making such mistakes can also be as a result of not to be able to apply grammar rules to complicated sentences.When we read p.18,we see that there is no mistake with 's' which is added to only one noun.(many ideas..etc.)howeer with a pair of nouns, mistakes appear..


Anonymous said...

1.SLA focuses on how people learn other languages after their native languages.this research involves a broad process of learning.in this process,sla focuses learners’ steps of acquiring language,which situations they are exposed to,what are their own hypothesises towards rules,whether there are L1 influences or not and results of them.also learners’ feelings towards language is important.with sla research,learning becomes more permanent and meaningful for students.
2.I think their most probable hypothesis is ‘don’t put –s to a noun whenever you see the plural quantifier before noun’.this can be the result of interlanguage because they try to put new rules to what they have already known from their native language before.in turkish,we also don’t say ‘birçok havlular’.when I was at high school,my teachers used to say that ‘don’t think in turkish’ because our translations are made according to turkish rules.so these kind of mistakes can be seen in learners.


Anonymous said...

second language acquisiton is a deadly important topic in elt term i think.(i explained it in the review of linguistic 1 in fall term)when first taught it catch my attention because we know everything is achieved in a genuine way when followed natural way,also this is completely natural..how a child acquire a language will determine the second one even 3rd and 4th..we ve a cognitive line listening+speaking+reading+writing which is the determiner of most language teaching methods..so i think it has a crucial role in language teaching..in our bulgarian lecture we ll follow this line and see if i am right or dreaming:)
2)language learning becomes much more easier if l1 has not share the same roots with l2 i think..this data make it clear too..arabic is coming from indo european languages like english so why they make so much mistakes even with the easiest thing plurals because there s somthing different ,not everything could be exactly the same!!my hypothesis is that if there s a determiner they think it s not necessary to use -s,they apply L1's rules that s why they misuse them..from the examples i can say that i first thought that these are grammatically correct sentences because we ve the same pattern with arabics speakers in terms of making plural...

Anonymous said...

1- Languages are not produced by only tongue.There is a secret garden behind the speaking ability.This ability is gained by means of two events: Learning and Acquisition.Acquisition is unconcious, informal and natural.Also people acquire a language unintentionally.At this point, we come across some other areas.First of all, we see linguistics.Linguistics is already a member of these areas since it is about language.There is psycholinguistics and its field is 'how people acquire and learn language.' Human acquires phonology, syntax, morphology, semantics and pragmatics.SLA is related with all these areas and it investigates acquisition from first step to last step.In conclusion, framing the SLA research is very difficult and sophisticated.I did not write all the related areas because SLA is related with almost every part of the brain.As a result; past and future events, knowledge, skills, psychology, culture and all other areas must be thought to frame the SLA research.This is so difficult because this is about human.

2- We learn from the data that this study is about Arabic speakers.There is a problem with quantifiers.I do not know exactly if quantifiers are used with singular nouns in Arabic but all given sentences include quantifiers and all nouns are written singular.This takes my attention.For example, in Turkish we say 'bir sürü kitap', not 'bir sürü kitaplar'.Like this, problem is probably about quantifiers and questions which ask the number of something.I mean, problem can be due to developmental affect and L1 interference. My hypothesis is this: "When there is not a number before a noun, Singular nouns are used with quantifiers and questions which need the quantity of the object."

Anonymous said...

There has been so many comprehensive researchs and inter pretations about SLA for the last years.what does SLA refer to?why so many Educators and linguists has made resarchs on SLA?
SLA is a very comprehensive study and has both differences and similiarities to the first language acqusıtıon.Generally,the commmon definition of SLA is the process of learning another language after the native language has learnt.this term is not only for the second language but also third, fourth or fifth language.In addition,its difference from foreign language learning is SLA is learnt in the environtment where the language is spoken.So; , acquisition of second language related to the people around the learner. SLA is conscious learning and needs to focus on grammer , syntax,phonology and morphology. because in the first language acquisition you hear the sounds from your environtment and use the grammer rules in daily life unconsciously.as time passes , you acquire the native language without taking lessons in the class but when learning SLA, you are faced with the target language's grammer rules, cross - cultural communication and cognitive pyschology. also , individual differences among learners such as age , anxiety , fear and motivation all affects learning. for example, fossilization which means the cessation of learning is apparent in SLA even if you have exposed to target language all in you life.
2: when look at the given examples, we see that all the sentences have plural mistakes . the examples which havent got a plural marker are the same at having a quantifier before the nouns. for instance; a couple of towel and many kind of way.. but instead of using a quantifier , if it were a numerical quantifier , the child wuold not make mistakes .for example they can easily say 'two deserts or four days..' a child not developed cognitively to learn the plurals can mix the first language with the second and dont put -s to the nouns.in addition , pronounciation difficulty can change the end of the noun as in the thirth example.english native speakers say - ns rather them -nths to simplify the pronounciation (eg. months)likewise,arabic spekars can also change in another way.

, 3231060002

Anonymous said...

1-Many people learn language in addition to their first language.For instance multilingualism is the norm in African and Asian countries.'second' is generallyused to refer to any language other than the first language.In the case of second language acquisition,the language plays an institutional and social role in the community.the main goal of SLA research is to characterize learners'underlying knowledge of the L2 to describe and explain their competence.However learners' mental knowledge is not open to direct inspection it can only be inferred by examining samples of their performance.So, ı think SLA researchers use kinds of performance to try to investigate competence.And how do learners acquire a second language and how does L1 affect SLA are the main questions of SLA RESEARCH
2-First language interference is very affective on learners' mistakes.A person who learns a language thinks in his/her own language exactly and it leads him to make mistake and mistakes of using plural is the most common one.IN english we use -s plural form when saying 'ı bought a couple of towel'but Turkish learners are making mistakes while creating this sentence because they think in turkish the turkish dont say'bir çift havlular satın aldım' or 'bir çok yolları var''birkaç aylar''ne kadar saatler'

Anonymous said...

1-SLA research is a useful tool for language teachers and other people involved in the language area to become aware of the best way to teach a language and to improve some strategies and methods to teach a language in the most successful way.Moreover,in this way,we can become more aware of how and what we teach to our students..

2-while learning a second language,our knowledge of the native language has a great effect on our second language acquisition,the more it includes close words,patterns or other
points to our first language,the more easily we can learn the second language,So,here mistakes on plural forms results from L1 influence since S' isn t used while doing plural form of words.For instance,we say that 'baklava yapmanın birçok yolu vardır instead of baklava yapmanın birçok yolları var'in which sounds meaningless.Thus,my hypotheses is that L1 knowledge interferes in second language learning and also we can conclude that it not only affects in plural forms but also in other structures such as syntax,morphology,etc..


Anonymous said...

1)Firstly, second language acquisitıon may be abbreviated ''SLA'' , or L2A,for 'l2'' ACQUISITION.It is concerned with the language system and learning processes themselves, SLA which can be understood from its name comes after native language.Thanks to SLA we can understand the difference L1 and L2 such as grammer, syntax ,morphology , phonologyand semantıcs..etc. SLA is the most suitable way to teach a language..

2)The effects of native language (L1) is very big on learnıng L2.Thanks to L1 we can easilylearn L2 because we can make relatıon between L1 and L2 but at the end , ıt can be done some mistakes.For examples; we say that bir cok sivrisinek var instead of bircok sıvrısınekler var.It ıs nonsense in terms of every aspect such as semantıcs , morphology..etc.

Anonymous said...

1) SLA research helps language teachers to decide how s/he would teach language. In other words, with the help of this lesson teachers can elect the ways of learning. While learning a second languge learners utilize their first language. they compare the languages(L1 & L2) When they make mistakes, teacher decide the source of it and so s/he practise different ways to cure the problem. Otherwise teachers may fail in teaching.

2) I think these mistakes can be made for two reasons.

Firstly and most probably learners make mistake because of the firt language influence. For example, Turkish sts usually make it at learning process. Because there is something different from their own lang. We do not say "bir çok elmalar" (many apples). The students think that the word "many" actually gives the meaning. There is no need for "plural -s". When they see émany, a couple, a few, ..." they do not put "-s" because of this.

Second probability is developmental mistake. Learners may be confused about new subject Quantifiers or plurals of the words.(this is lower than the first one)


Anonymous said...

1)In my opinion,framing second language acquisition research with a few words is not an easy thing,as it is related with human beings.It may be defined broadly as the study of human brain and psychology.Because learning a new language both requires the ability and motivation.By dividing the study of second language acquisition into five frameworks as;people,language,attention, cognition,and emotion Tom Scovel made a great definition of second language acquisition.As,we learn a language for communicating the role of people on the learning process is great.The impacts of language being learned and the mother language are very important while learning the new one.According to ‘PLACE’ model attention is the bridge between the outside world of people and languages and the internal realm of cognition and emotions.The person’s ability of understanding and thinking about the language can be framed as cognition,there stands the psychology and under the name of emotions we study the feelings impact on acquisition of language.As an experienced teacher Scovel said briefly what I want to say.

2)Hypothesis:when there is the article ‘a’there is no plural marker on the noun,the use of many not necessitates the use of ‘s’.

I this mistakes are derived from L1influence.

Anonymous said...

1-) Although SLA can simply be expalined as the study of second language,it does not describe it's functions completely.SLA is the study of learner's underlying language learning system and how second language may be exposured to this layer; what will be learned after this exposure and what mistakes might be done and why; why some people learn second language as a native speaker while others hardly achieve half degree of it and of course; how first language affects the learning process of the second language.All of these aspects gives the frame of SLA research.

2-) Learner's "plural" rule:
h(1)--> do not use plural suffix when you see the singular adjective "a/an"
h(2)--> whenever there is a word with plural meaning like "many,lots of, a few, a lot of...", there is no need for the plural suffix.
h(3) when there is singular subject like "I,he,she,it,there is",do not use plural form.
h(3) when the object has a general meaning like "mosquito for all the mosquitos, tree for all the species of tree"; there is no need to use plural form.

Anonymous said...

1) SLA research is about how second language is acquired. This research is very important for foreign language teachers. Through the descriptive study of learner language, some SLA researchers seek to better understand language learning without recourse to factors outside learner language. One other area of second language research and practice that the acquisition-learning hypothesis helps to interpret is work in second language aptitude and attitude. SLA research looks how we learn these parts of the other languages and what we bring from our native language.

2) In the given examples there is plural –s mistakes. Making mistakes come from thinking in your own language when you are speaking fluency. Learning second language become by making connection with your native language in Turkish language plurals are different so I think that the reason of –s mistakes is this.

Anonymous said...

1) I would frame the SLA research into four main parts. First one is to be aware of the similarities and differences between L1 and L2, secondly and probably the most important part is to make students love L2; at least to leave a question mark and curiousity in their minds. Games, pictures, songs could help the teacher while developing the grammar and some structures basicly. In addition to that pronunciation and encouraging them to speak without corrects and incorrects are also very vital for learning L2. During this phase different needs and habits of students should be learned; this would show the way to reach at students through directly or indirectly but effectively. The next step is to achive to canalize them into thinking in L2. Reading and making up stories, writing activities would be helpful about expressing themselves. Thirdly, advanced grammar, further reading, writing and speaking skills, understanding, uniqe parts of L2, literature, jokes, idioms, expressions of emotions and the history, culture and social life of the native speakers of L2 should be thought. Finally,the main point is to understand and comprehend both L1 and L2 so that students would be required to explain their perceptions in L2.

2) All the sentences I have read in the book were non English like. Since the speakers were Arabic, it is normal that they didn’t use the plural forms of the words because in Arabic plural forms are almost totaly different than the singular forms of the words. Singular words turn into plural by changing all the word. Arabic has neither articles a or an which shows the word is singular nor –s to make words plural. In these sentences quantifiers (couple, many, a lot of, few) give the plural meaning. Another thing is for second language learners grammar is not very important at the beginning. As far as people understand what they mean, they don’t care the rest.


Anonymous said...


1) Before framing the SLA research,we should simply define the line between second language acquasition and second language leaning and teaching.Because generally "how second languages are learned " is a question to be investigated by that field. While tryng to find answers to the questions,for example about people's creating their own new system of language,this field come acrosses with lots of other related questions. But the most general and the most important question that can be asked in this field would be the following: "what is the best way of learning a second language?" In the light of this question, we can frame the SLA researches by means of making it based on some other questions:
-How much second language should a learner exposure to?
-What are the particular things that can be easily learned by the learner and what are the others that can be found really difficult to make clear?
-Can everbody learn a second language at the same level?
-Are there any mutual points between a child's language acuisition and his learning a second language?

2) English-like: studies
Non-English-like: a couple of towel/ many kind of way/ afew month/ a lot of mosquito/how many hour

According to that categorization;
a-If one of the elements of the plural phrase is non-english-like, then the whole phrase is non-english-like.
//A lot of mosquito-there IS a lot of mosquito

We can simply observe that,when we look at the category of non-like-english; there are lots of quantfying phrases.So;

b-If there is a quantifying word or phrase before the noun, there is no clear marking on the plural of that noun,
Then we deduct that;
c-Apart from those that are preceded by a quantfying word or phrase, use /s/ for plurization.


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