11.23.2006

Functional Approach to Acquisition

Hello Everybody,
This week we studied Functional Approach to Language Acquisition.

1.Read the following citation:
“Functionalists maintain that the communicative situation motivates, constrains, or otherwise determines grammatical structure…..” (Nichols, J. (1984, p 97). Functional theories of grammar. Annual Review of Anthropology, 13, 97-117.)

2. In the light of this citation find examples (at least two) of this kind where the situation effects the use of a particular grammatical structure, in Turkish or English.

(For Example: we use different "Modal Verbs" when we ask for money from a) our parents; b) our teahcher; c) a stranger)

I wish you all success for your mid-terms,

Tuncer Can

114 comments:

Pelin Akcura said...

Language is a combination of morphology, syntax, phonetics, semantics, syntax and pragmatics. There are too many dimensions you have to consider when you are communicating with people depending on the situation you are in, on your purpose, on the distance between you and the receiver,on the subject.All these aspects shape our way to build our sentences. There are some examples:

-I buy that skirt today; give me some money?(with mother)

-Excuse me, If I 'm not bothering you, I have some debts to handle within this week, so would you please allow me to take some money from my next month's salary? (with the boss)

-Hı, listen, I need some money, I want to buy this skirt you remember I told you. Can you borrow me some, I pay you back.(with a close friend)

or:

-open the window, please!(teacher tells the class)

-it is too hot here, isn't it?(teacher is among strangers in the director's room waiting for him to come)

-Would you please open the window?(the student tells the teacher)

-Do you mind if I open the window, ladies?(director asks the teachers in his own room)

Anonymous said...

3231050056...
According to the situations we are in we use different grammar structers to be able to express our thoughts,feelings exactly,like in the situations below;
-Think that your brother poured ink over the carpet and you know that when your mother hears that she will be very angry so you say to him;'if my mother sees this,she will kill you.in this sentence you use the modal'will'to show your certanity.
-On the other hand think that your brother poured a little water over the floor and this time you say ;'let's clean there my mother may get angry with you'.And by using may you show possibility,uncertanity.
-ın a company somebody who has an upper position wants a number from some one who has a down position.He says'john bring me te number of director in a few minutes'.He use an imperative sentence to get the number immediately by showing the differnce between them caused by hieracy.
-ın contrast when the one who is in a one down possition wants a number from his chief or boss he says;'Mr Edams Could you give me the number of general director?This time he uses the structure of modal(COULD)to show polite request.

Anonymous said...

*3231050057*
The usage of grammatical structures becomes different according to the situation in which we are.Our relationships with other people,our sincerity or our status affects our communication language also.For instance;when we talk to a stranger,we use more formal language than talking to a friend.
There is an example about asking an address:
-Excuse me!I'm stranger in here.Could you describe the way of the post office? (with a stranger)

-I don't know the way.how can I go to the post office?(with a friend)

-Hi!I came here to go to the post office.But ı couldn't find it.can you explain where it is?(a friend of your mother)

You started to go out with a girl two days ago.And you want to go to the cinema this weekend.Your language can be like this:
-Would you like to go to the cinema this weekend?

Your relationship has been kept on for two years.Then you use a different language:
-Let's go to the cinema this weekend.I'm sure you'll like the film.

Anonymous said...

The situation of communication which we are in determines and directs the grammatical structure we use in that our way of talking differs in parallel with the people we're aiming to.What it means is obvious: we don't choose similar expressions when we're communicating with people from different ages,hierarcy,or intimacy on the same issue.This fact causes our differing uses of grammatical structures.
In one case,Jane learns that she has won a scholarship from his principal of her school.Then she explains it to her teacher as the following:
"The school principal suggested that I be awarded a scholarship"
When it comes to telling her best friend about it,she follows such a different grammatical structure.In order to express her happiness and excitement she says:
"Mary,won it at last!!!"
Another example can be about the usage of verb+infinitive.There occurs a rejection of job application for which John applied.The authorized person tells this to John as:
"We regret to inform you that your application has been unsuccesful."
John narrates that reply to his father:
"They didn't want me as an employee."
He doesn't convey this information like that:"The man was regretful to tell me that my application had been unsuccesful." Because the communicative situation is different;much less complex and formal here,with the father.
___3231050071___

Derya N. Disanlı said...

We use different grammatical structures depending on our communicative situations.Some situations need more formal language;others do not need it. We choose the grammatical structure for example we use "would you please" or we do not use it.We form our sentences and we use some extra words depending on the situation or the people with whom we are talking.

Example:
- Can you borrow me your brown bag for this nigth?I have not the brown one.(from mother-in-law)

- Excuse me! If you don't need this brown bag tonight, could you please borrow me it for only this night?I really need it tonight.(from a neighbor that I've newly met.)

- Hi!What a fantastic brown bag.Can you borrow it tonight?Promise, tomorrow you will have it again!Okey?(from a close friend)

Example:

- Who is speaking there?Do not speak loudly!I'm trying to catch the teacher.( to the close friends or classmates)

- Would you please turn the walk-man down, it is a bit loud.(to a passenger that I do not know in the bus)

- I'm sorry!I would not really want you to do this if I wasn't ill but I'm very uncomfortable with this music sound.( To the boss)

The examples and the words used can change also depending on the culture where we live in.

3215030015(double major)

Anonymous said...

I want to give some examples in Turkish to inform the funtionalist approach.
1-In Turkish there is a changeble sytem while we emphising some elements of sentences.
Ex:Seni 2 saattir burada bekliyorum.
first Change:2 saattir burada seni bekliyorum.
second Change:Burada iki saattir seni bekliyorum.
2-Again in Turkish grammar structure there can be a change system contrast to meaning.
ex:Yarın Ankara'ya uçuyorum.(means will go)
ex:Beni aradı,yarın gelirmiş.
(means he will come)
it's named as Meaning changes
Mr. Can,please could you tell me if I'm right on understanding this way.

3231050066 Abdurrahman Tanrıverdi

Anonymous said...

3231050003
Languages are used for different purposes.On the one hand language plays a central role in cognition. Our thoughts are often formulated in language and a central part of grammer is a level at which meanings are represented.On the other hand, language serves as the primary medium of communication among members.
Spoken language epitomizes human creativity.Speaking requires formulating messages based on the ideas we want to express and the communicative goals we want to achieve.We formulate a message by choosing a grammatical structure, inserting words into that grammatical structure, inflecting the words, and then producing the sounds.

In the communication process, individuals shape the gramatical structure according to their situation, intimacy with others, and intention.For instance; in a situation in which we are a foreigner in a new country or in which we do not know the person in front of us, and we need to know where the hospital is, we use a grammatical structure like "Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the hospital,please?". On the other hand if we are asking the same thing to a friend, we are likely to say "Where is the hospital?" , because this time we don't need to use a formal structure.
Let's imagine another situation.
-Give me a pen!(teacher to her students)
-Can I borrow your pen?( a student to a friend)
-Would you give me your pen for a moment, please? (a new student who has just come to the class to another student)

In this view, Functional Sentence Perspectivists believe that the structure of utterances is determined by the use to which they are put and the communicative context in which they occur.

Anonymous said...

3231050102 situations determine our way of talking.we use different grammatical structures according to our relationship with the people we communicate.for example,think that while you are driving your tyres has burst.ıf you want help from someone who you don't kmow you say 'excuse me,while driving tyres has burst out and there is no one to help.could you help me please?' but when asking your friend you say'my tyres has burst out please help me as soon as possible.' another example 'when you are wanting to talk to your friend you say to her mother'can ı talk to zeynep plese.'but when you want to talk to your boss you say to the secretary 'could ı talk to mr.brown'you say.

3231050032 said...

We define our grammatical structures depending on our relationship with people.For example there is an hierarchical relationship between boss and worker.It requires more formal language otherwise we speak more sincerely with our close friends or we speak more respectfully with our teachers. -Good morning Mr.Clerk!May I go out for an hour? I have to take my daughter to the hospital.(Boss-worker) -Sorry teacher I don't understand this subject clearly.Could you please explain it again?(Teacher-Student) -Hi Kelly!What are you doing this night?Can we go to the cinema?

3231050101 said...

The way we use language is influenced by our relationship with other people,the situation of communication;where it takes place,with whom and so forth.Take a situation in which we need to be polite,for example.In this case we express our wishes or orders by using 'would like to'. In an elegant restaurant,for instance we say 'I would like to have fried chicken please'.However at home it turns up like this:'I want fried chicken ,give me fried chicken!'.Another example can be as the following:While we are having a conversation with our mother,friend or cousin we directly move into the conversation,say what we have in mind,ask questions etc.But in the class when we want to ask something,we raise our hand and say'Do you mind if I ask a question?'.In critisizing people also ,if we want to make a constructive critisizm and be not offensive,we say 'you should be more care careful in writing so that you can better express yourself to other people'.Or we can shout like this'You are always making mistakes!'to show just anger in a harsh manner.

Anonymous said...

Communicative situation determines our way of using grammatical structures.We try to use more formal language when we have a conversation with a stranger and informal language while talking to our friends,family members,etc.For example,when we are angry with the noise of the people around us,we use different grammatical structures depending on the closeness of our relationship with them.We can say directly 'Be quiet'to our brother not even concealig our anger.But we use more formal language when we say to our neighbour:'Would you please turn the music down as I'm trying to concentrate on my homework.'In such a situation we try to conceal our anger.In both of the conversation the aim is to obtain silence,but the ways to access it are different.Other examples:
When we have difficulty in understanding the new subject in the lesson,the ways we want help differ from situation to situation.
-'Ihaven't understood even one word what the teacher said.I need your help.'(to your close friend)
-'Teacher,I couldn't understand the new subject.Would you please repeat it?'(to your teacher)
As we see communicative situation motivates,constrains or determines grammatical structure.

Anonymous said...

Communicative situation determines our way of using grammatical structures.We try to use more formal language when we have a conversation with a stranger and informal language while talking to our friends,family members,etc.For example,when we are angry with the noise of the people around us,we use different grammatical structures depending on the closeness of our relationship with them.We can say directly 'Be quiet'to our brother not even concealig our anger.But we use more formal language when we say to our neighbour:'Would you please turn the music down as I'm trying to concentrate on my homework.'In such a situation we try to conceal our anger.In both of the conversation the aim is to obtain silence,but the ways to access it are different.Other examples:
When we have difficulty in understanding the new subject in the lesson,the ways we want help differ from situation to situation.
-'Ihaven't understood even one word what the teacher said.I need your help.'(to your close friend)
-'Teacher,I couldn't understand the new subject.Would you please repeat it?'(to your teacher)
As we see communicative situation motivates,constrains or determines grammatical structure.
_3231050069_

Anonymous said...

3231050073 said that
As Functionalists state the situation in which we communicate has an important effect in determining the grammatical structure that we will use.In other words our use of grammatical structure of the language depends our communicative situation.
For example we can use heads and tails in informal conversation or everyday conversation which we generally make with our friends .But in formal conversation esp when speaking with a boss teacher we cant use them
Ex.My friend's cousin,Jane's brother the boy over there is the captain of the football team of the school.-İnformal conversation speaking with my friend-
The boy over there who is my friend's cousin and Jane's brother is the captain of the football team of the school.-In formal converstion speaking with my teacher-
We also can't use the imperatives in formal situation but we can easily use the imperatives in informal situation
Ex-Ayşe:Close the door Fatma
Fatma:OK-in informal conversation while speaking with my friend
The secratary:Could you please give me a day off to go to the doctor?
the boss:yes certainly.-İn informal situation the secratary couldn't state directly Give me a day off.But she made her ststement soft by adding could and please.

Anonymous said...

3231050127
As functionalists maintain,our communicative situation motivates and determines grammatical structure.For example;to whom we are talking to is important.If we are talking to someone close to us,our speaking is informal.But sometimes we talk formally and use more formal grammatical structures.Here are some examples:
1.When I ask the time to my sister I say:

-What is the time?
But when I ask the time to a stranger I say:
-Excuse me.Could you please tell me what time it is?

2.Or in a daily conversation:

my friend:How is it going on?
me:not bad,What about you?

But when I make the same conversation with someone who I am not close to,I use different grammatical structures.

x:Good afternoon.How are you?
me:I am very well,thanks.And how are you?

As the examples show,the communicative situation influences the way we speak.

Anonymous said...

Functionalists maintain that grammer structures depend on communicative situation,ı agree with them and ı can understand these situations because ı see many examples of them.We speak according to our feelings,thoughts and our mind so we speak what we feel and thınk about environment and people.People speak with different grammer structure at different places and different people.
ı want to give an example about one of my friend.We had an important lesson friday and one of my friend wanted to take notes of that exam.He first wanted that notes from a boy and said:
Hey!What is up?Give your notes ı will copy them.
He took notes but it wasnt full and wanted to take from one of girls and said:
Excuse me!I am sorry for disturbing you.Could you please give me your notes?
As we see at this example,our grammer structures change according to people with whom we speak.
I want to give an example too about this situation.There is a doctor at hospital and he changes his grammer according to his sicks.There are lots of people who wait for the doctor to be examined.Firstly a farmer entered the doctor's room and doctor writes something to his books and dont look his sick and says:
Yes!What is ur problem?
and after this man another sick person comes to the doctor but he is director of his aparment,the doctor stands up,smile and ask:
Welcome!How can ı hepl you?I will do what can ı do.
When the person changes,the the grammer changes too.
-3231050092-

Anonymous said...

When we are talking to people several factors like the situation, the subject and the distance between us and the people we are talking to determine the grammatical structures we use.As the distance between us and the people we are communicating with grows we use more formal structures.For instance,when we ask direction to a stranger we don't say:"Hey chap,tell me how i can go to..."instead we say"Excuse me sir/madam,could you please tell me how i can go to..."Or if we are telling a friend about the culture of a country to inform her/him we don't pay heed to form complete and grammatically correct sentences but if we are imparting the same information in an oral presentation then we pay attention to use the right addressing words and the correct grammatical structures and we avoid informal expressions.Likewise,in a job interview we assume a serious manner and use informal language because this situation involves seriousness and a formal format.If we act in the opposite way we leave a bad impact behind and this means no chance of getting the job.

Anonymous said...

Anonymous said...
When we are talking to people several factors like the situation, the subject and the distance between us and the people we are talking to determine the grammatical structures we use.As the distance between us and the people we are communicating with grows we use more formal structures.For instance,when we ask direction to a stranger we don't say:"Hey chap,tell me how i can go to..."instead we say"Excuse me sir/madam,could you please tell me how i can go to..."Or if we are telling a friend about the culture of a country to inform her/him we don't pay heed to form complete and grammatically correct sentences but if we are imparting the same information in an oral presentation then we pay attention to use the right addressing words and the correct grammatical structures and we avoid informal expressions.Likewise,in a job interview we assume a serious manner and use informal language because this situation involves seriousness and a formal format.If we act in the opposite way we leave a bad impact behind and this means no chance of getting the job.

12:39 AM
3231050065

Anonymous said...

Our using grammatical structures is shaped by the situation we are in and the closeness with the person our interaction is getting with.we can't use same language with everybody.we sometimes have got to be polite and express our ideas indirectly and because of this conceal our real feelings but this is a necessity otherwise we would argue with everybody or lose relationship by losing their respect.as i said earlier we use different languages while saying or asking sth up to our relationship.for example if you want help from a friend to wash dishes you say "i am not servant of yours, come and help me" but from a guest you ask help by saying "would you please help me to wash dishes to save more time for chat"
another example is in the situation while asking for money .for example while a beggar asks for money he/she says "for the sake of god give me some money" but if you ask money from one of your friends you say"hey,give me some money man i will give u back later" but from your boss u ask saying "could you please give me some money i promise i will pay it back as soon as possible".
we always should be careful because the way we speak is very important for other people.

Anonymous said...

according to the our situation,we use different grammatical structers.because sometimes some peaple are strange for us and so we are more formal them than our family or friend.for example we are in paris for holiday and we want to go eyfel tower.so we ask somebody who we dont know.so we start our question "sorry.could you..."on the other hand when we ask our homework our friend or ask our mother any question we use "can you,lets.."because they are close for us.
situation is different for teachers, because they are usually use imperatives when they speak students.thats to say we are use different sentences,expressions,modals,words when we communicate differen person and when we are different position.3231050084

Anonymous said...

people form the language usage within the borders of interpersonal relations. these borders are conditioned to their social status to others. for instance, no one speaks to his/her parents like his friends. so, to show the difference of personal statuses, the language usage is differed by speaker. maybe that is why the modals have different expressions among themselves, as we form our sentences with different modal verbs when we want same thing from our parents or friends, for example. the formality between people sets which verb should be used. on the other hand, it can not be limited with only verbal uses. clarity or implication also change the usage. anyone can express his thought to any sincere person via using only simple and short phrases but this conversation would be senseless to any stranger.
3231050021

jdeı said...

nd

Çağrı Erden said...

According to our situations we are in,we use different grammer structures.we can give examples in different languages.For instance;according to Turkish grammer structures we use different structures like while making tone:

-Özlem ile Amasya'ya ne zaman gideceksin?(the tone is 'ne zaman')

-Amasya'ya ne zaman Özlem'le gideceksin?(the tone is Özlem'le)

-Özlem'le ne zaman Amasya'ya gideceksin?(the tone is 'Amasya'ya' )

In these examples to make tone we change the situation of subject or adverb.we change the structure according to the word which we want to make tone.
Another example;ın Turkish grammer structure changes while we use plural suffix althought there is not a meaning of plural:

-Annem teyzemlere gitti.

-Ayşeler yarın bize gelecek
3231050070

Anonymous said...

We adapt our language according to situation we are in while using grammar and communicating.The central element of all communication is context.That is,questions such as:'what is the purpose of communication and who are the participants' show the importance of context in determining how the communication takes place.For example,if there is distance between the speaker and listener, the speaker has to make the communication clear and concise, he has to avoid redundancies, poor expressions.Examples will explain better:
1)-Is it all right if I use the phone?
*The speaker is asking permission from a friend.
2)-Do you think I could possibly phone Australia?
*The speaker is asking permission from the same person but about a more serios topic.
To give example from Turkish:
*When we communicate with a close friend, we use 'SEN'
1)Nasılsın?
*On the other hand, when we communicate with a foreign person we use 'SİZ'
1)Nasılsınız?
'SİZ' is used for plural pronouns, but the foreign is not more than a person. It is the marker of formal conversation.

Anonymous said...

3231050103 put the comment at 12:42AM I AM SORRY, I FORGOT TO WRITE

Anonymous said...

3231050083 said that Language is mean communicate with other side one that when you want to tell him something or converse with him something.Language help
to you determine or explain your happiness your sadness or how you should use your language which aspect is right to use.These are depend on your usage which aim.For instance you need some money and you want to pay this money for jeans.you use language to against our mother such as:ı will buy a jeans give me money.this is informal language.but when you want money from your friend you say such as:can you give me some money ?ı need it ı will pay back you.this is a friend language that neither formal nor informal.when you want money from your boss or your teacher you use language formal because the line between you is not too close so that you wannt to protect line between you.you say such as: could/may you give me some money ı need it too much ı will give back to you immediately please ı need it.you want it such as you beg or prey for something.ın turkish language different.for example,bana biraz para verir misin? veya biraz bana para verir misin?ın here the sentences mean the same but when you want to change the place of words this you can.

Anonymous said...

In our social life we have different closeness with people around us.And this effects the way we speak.Sometimes we speak formally and sometimes we do it in an informal way.For example:
*What would you like to start with? (A waiter to a customer.)
*Wanna have something before dinner? (A wife to her husband.)

*Would you open the door,please? (A student to his/her teacher.)
*Can you open the door? (A teacher to his/her students.)

3231050025

3231050093 said...

What functionalists claim is a true expression of the relationship between the language grammar and the communication world that prepares it.To clarify,It is grammar what enables us to understand each other.Upon hearing this,some may question"do we really have to apply grammar to interact"...Well,language is not only grammar of course,but what directs the meanings we want to convey is of course the grammar.This can be best seen in the difference between the uses of active and passive voices:

-Ceren left Eren
-Eren was left by Ceren

in both cases all the elements,the doer, the action,the effected,are the same however what we understand differs;because the point of focus changes.Another example for different grammar used in different situations:
-would you mind opening the door please
OR...
-ohh,darling please open the window
OR..
-open the window jack!

no need to be informed about,we immediately realise that this sentences are said in different situations...
as we-by our social background- know that a son can't say to his father "open the window jack!" or we don't say to a close friend "would you mind if..."
these differences all stem from the different situations of communication.

Anonymous said...

The communication between people depends on some elements such as intimacy,status...When we are communicating with people we have to think these dimensions of communication.For example, the conservation between mother and girl is different from the teacher-student conversation.Purpose of the communication also influences the way people communicate.According to our purpose,intimacy with the people we shape our conversation.Below there are some examples.
-Would you mind lending me your dictionary?
(student tells the teacher)
-Mum!Can you pass me the butter?
(son tells his mother)
-Could you please direct me to the Post Office?
(a stranger on the street tells you)
-Will you give me a lift home after work?
(friend-friend)
-Please,try to speak a bit more quietly.
(teacher tells the students)
As understood from these examples,
communication is shaped according to our intimacy and purpose.
3231050068

Anonymous said...

The communication between people depend on the relationship with other people.of course we speak to people whom they are.so the closeness between people effects the way we speak to them.also we use different grammatical structures and ways for instance formal or informal depending on our closeness.we can give some examples;if we spek to a close friend,we can say:
can you lend me some money?
but if we speak to a person we dont know well, we choose a formal way so we say:
ı need some money could you lend me some?
in here the modal is important.so we can say the grammatical structures are different when we speak...
3231040059

Sezen Arslan said...

Functional linguistics considers language in regard to its relation to the outside world,therefore it tends to focus on its functions, that is,"communicative needs and verbal tasks"!
What is most substantial is to know how a language is used if we take the functionalist stance in the domain of SLA.
Thus,grammatical structures are applied in differnt forms due to the invariability of various contexts/situations in the universe.Each language structure plays a different role in the actual communication.
-"I would be grateful if you could help me translate it into English."This is an extract from a diolog between a teacher and a student.A formal structure is used in that the ideal relationship is between them must be "formal",so the given structure is changed inevitably.Now,here is another version of that sentence and this diolog is between two intimate friends:"Hey!Look,I wanna you to help me with this bloody translation.You gonna help,huh?"This conversation is very informal in that this is a frank enviromenment between 2 best friends so most probably,there is no need to act in a formal way.As a result,the structures are presented in an informal way,here.

3231050085 said...

As functionalists say,the situation in which we communicate is an important factor to shape our conversation.It constrains,motivates and determines our grammatical structure according to our relationship with the person we talk.Grammar is not everything,but it provides us to understand each other.We use different kind of structures according to our relation,intimacy,age,hierarchy an so on.I can give such examples to clarify this:

-Here is very cold.Would you mind if I closed the window?
(to a teacher)
-Mum,here is very cold.can you close the window?
(to mother)
-Close the window,please!
(to your younger brother)

OR

We can use informal structures such as wanna,gonna
while communicating with a close friend.For instance;
-I wanna go to cinema.Let's go!
-I am gonna make you believe me, you will see!!
However we use modals to say same things to the people who are distant.
All of these depend on different kinds of communication.

Anonymous said...

3231040107

There is no doubt that the communicative situation motivates and determines the grammatical structure.We use different kinds of structures related to the persons we are speaking to.We can not speak with the same language when we talk to a close friend and when we talk to our parents or other people.We choose different types of intonation,too.We even ask for things in different ways and get angry in different ways.For example when getting angry with a friend(sister,brother):
(1)-Hey,what are you talking about,are you crazy?
The intonation is increasing and the tone of voice is high.The grammatical structure used:present continous tense and the use of the adjective 'crazy' has a negative meaning.
But when you get angry with a grown up person you can say:
-Excuse me,but İ am not sure.İ understood you.İ respect you very much ,your thoughts also ,but in this topic İ think a little bit differently.
The voice is low and quite.The grammatical structure used:You begin the answer with a very polite expression'excuse me'.So you want them to excuse you for your missunderstanding.The choice or the word, like:İ respect you,your thoughts is also related to the situation.Verbs are in the present tense that means that you always respect them.
(2)When we want something from someone we use different grammatical structures.For example İ can ask my sister by asking her to bring me a glass of water by saying:
-Hey give me a glass of water immediately.
İ used the imperative form of verb and immadiately.
But İ can not ask the same thing to an older.İ may ask for more important things in a different way,like that:
-MRS X would you give me the pleasure to post this letter for me!
When we want to post a letter in the post we used modal and a very gently language

Anonymous said...

We adapt our language according to situation we are in while using grammar and communicating.The central element of all communication is context.That is,questions such as:'what is the purpose of communication and who are the participants' show the importance of context in determining how the communication takes place.For example,if there is distance between the speaker and listener, the speaker has to make the communication clear and concise, he has to avoid redundancies, poor expressions.Examples will explain better:
1)-Is it all right if I use the phone?
*The speaker is asking permission from a friend.
2)-Do you think I could possibly phone Australia?
*The speaker is asking permission from the same person but about a more serios topic.
To give example from Turkish:
*When we communicate with a close friend, we use 'SEN'
1)Nasılsın?
*On the other hand, when we communicate with a foreign person we use 'SİZ'
1)Nasılsınız?
'SİZ' is used for plural pronouns, but the foreign is not more than a person. It is the marker of formal conversation.
3231050103

Anonymous said...

while speaking, our selection of words, grammatical structures etc. are determined by a major factor, namely situation.our relationship with other people plays a significant role on the way we build our sentences.at times, we have to use a formal language,and at times we are obliged to use an informal language,and at times we have to use a less formal language etc.our hierarchy, status,our closeness and distance with other people etc are major factors that determines the situation.for instance;the way we talk to our teacher differs from the way we talk to one our bosom buddies.here are some samples:

"hey you, give me a hand repair the car."(from someone to an intimate person)

"excuse me sir, ı am late.may ı come in?"(from a student to a teacher)

" paardon, ı am late again.anyway, ı am here in the end."(from a person to another close person)

Anonymous said...

3231050049 said that...
Of course we generally speak according to the situations in we are. In this aspect language is similar with our behaviours. For instance our behaviours change according to where we are. For example we can't behave in school as relax as we are at home. Because language is not only combination of a few words or a few sentence, instead; it is combinations of morphology, phonetics, semantics, syntax and pragmatics. So if we look in this aspect we can say that language is life. Because mostly we are speaking as we behave. Our language or way of speaking may change let alone situations even according to people around us. Can you say that i can dare to speak with my boss as free as collegues. I think it is imposible. If you do this you might be free everytime on that moment. You must be more kind in this situation.
As a conlusion situations we are in, people around us or everything around us is an effect to change our way of speaking.

Anonymous said...

The intensions and purposes, status, closeness and distances of speaker or listener play a big role in language which is presented in situational context. People shape their functional sentences such as requesting, complaining, apologizing with the help of modals. There are two examples;

E.g: My best friend Özge and her boy friend Güney always speak informally between themselves. They both never mind the way they speak. However, one day Özge damage Güney's digital camera which was his mother's birthday present and they had a diolog like this:
Özge:I have to confess something to you. I know that it is very important for you, i am really sorry darling.
Güney:Come on, relax. Say what you want to say directly.
Özge:I am so sorry, i drop and damage your digital camera.

E.g: Ümran and Soner who normally stayed in a dormitory will join a party. The party, however, will start at 23.00 and finish at 03.00. They cannot go back to the dormitory, so they have to stay in their friend's house.
If they want it from a close friend of theirs:
-We come to you towards this morning. OK?
If they want it from a classmate:
-This night we will join a party and it will finish towards morning, so we cannot go back to the dormitory. If we don't disturb you, could we come to you? I am sorry, we have really no choice but to come to your house.
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Anonymous said...

BURAK GÜR
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ı want to explain this condition with the term "notional syllabus". ıt embraces any strategy of language teaching that derives the content of learning from an initial analysis of the learner's need to express three different kinds of meaning: functional, modal and conceptual(categories of communicative function). The term ı've just mentioned is based on speech act theory which categorizes the social purpose of utterences withen given settings. That is; communicating with people depends on the situation you're in, your porpuse and distance between you and the receiver. All these facilities determine the way you speak. For instance, when asking for permission from mother to go out you can say hey mother ı wanna go out. On the other hand, when asking for permission from boss while working you can't say like that. Instead, you have to say sorry sir can you give me permission to go out for .. reasons?! ıt's what communicative situation's effect on grammatical structure and ıt's what the functional approach to acquisition!

Anonymous said...

SİNAN BOZKURT
3231050028
ı think it is related with distance and also markedness. ın that; your conversation with others depends on your closeness with the recevier. for example, you can't speak with your teacher in the same way you speak with your friend you have to be much more formal while speaking with your teacher. also your thoughts, ideas even culture determine the way you speak with others. ıt shows difference. ıt changes from person to person like from mother to friend. for example, while speaking with your mother you can act comfortably but when you speak with your teacher you have to be much more formal.

Anonymous said...

the 18th comment written at 5.57 pm is mine
3231050001 said

Anonymous said...

Our speaking style changes from person to person.namely,this depends on how situation you are in and what your purpose is.in this way,our words and sentences are shaped.
for example,
when we speak a stranger,our communication style must be formal.
=excuse me,would you please tell me how I can find this address?
when we speak our close friend,then our style changes that is ıt is less formal.
=hi marry,ı need your phone right now.ı forgot my phone at home.Can you give me ıt?
when a tacher wants his/her student to do something,he/she does not have to approach in a formal way.
=Edison,don't speak until the lesson finishes,or you will have to be punished.don't forget this!
As we said before,we use different gramatical structures when we speak and this determines our approach
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MEVLUDE ABDİOGLU said...

There are various factors which shape our use of language, particularly grammatical structures.According to funtionalists it is the communicative situation which determines the grammatical structure.Function of the forms is to convey meaning.Here is an example how hierarchy of positions affect the structure in turkish language:
When a student who is lower in the hierarcial system writes a petition to school master who is higher in the system, he says '...yapılmasını rica ederim.' at the end of his letter.However when national education minister who is highest sends any written text to school masters he says '...bilgilerinize arz ederim.' at the end.Again as you can see the hierarchy between the minister and master determines the structure use.
And there is another example which supports funtionalists' communicative situation.
When jack sees his teacher from high school on the way to home, he greets him by saying 'oh hello mr.Black how do you do?it is very nice to see you after so much time'.But when he sees an intimate friend from old days, he says 'hey guy what are you doing.where were you?'.
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meryem yeltekin said...

Functionalists claim that language has evolved and is acquired in relation to the communicative functions it serves.It is a system of forms and meanings.Forms can be viewed as vehicles through which the meanings can be understood.You use linguistic means(lexical,intonational,word order)and aspects of language as the semantic structure of the clause,case marking,syntax etc. to express yourself and change them pschologically while talking with the people of different ages,statues and positions.Language is organized in relation to the needs of those who use it.In formal conversations,we wish to show respect ,politeness or to put ourselves at a distance.Informal language can show friendliness,equality or a feeling of closeness and solidarity with someone.Think about a secretarian who answers telephones and negotiates with important people in a big company and has to contact with them in a formal way.On the other hand,we see that as soon as coming home,she throws this formality off and talks informally and sincerely with her family.In conversations with the people in the company,she has to use appropriate forms of grammar structures to be more official and should not lose control of earnestness.There is no need for this at home.Another example that shows communicative situations'effect on grammar forms can be seen in dialogues between a teacher mother and her child.This child doesn't feel uncomfortness in saying something to her mother and uses the language as it goes,however she tries not to use inappropriate structures while talking to her teacher at school.Another example is that, when you are in need of help in the street and want it from a stranger,you ask:'Can you help me,please?'by struggling to be formal as much as possible.Once you r at school or home and asking for help from your friends or one of the members of the family,you never frame yourself and point out your need of help by saying:'Give me a hand!'
In English and Turkish,we shorten some words in our daily,informal conversations.In Turkish,for instance,we inquire after our grandparents health and mood,by asking:'Nasılsınız?'.We can't use the word 'Naber?' as in conversations between our friends.In English you put the words such as 'hi!,bye!'in your dialogues with the ones yoe feel close ,however it won't be appropriate with the people you think you have a distance.And in daily conversations of English,sentences like;'What's on telly tonight?,I'll meet you in the lab. and We should put and ad.'can be used.
In the notices and warnings,formal language is used.You can't use informal words or structures.
-Children are requested not to deposit litter in the play-area.
-We regret we cannot accept cheques.
_Meryem Yeltekin_
**3231050064**

Anonymous said...

communicative situation is a situation where interaction occurs or specific events take place.

grammatical structure: the rules for organizing elements of a language into meaningful utterances.

-süleyman is shopping in the small market in his neighbourhood.He speaks as follows:
* give me bread Ali amca
-while he is shopping in the supermarket:
*excuse me,May I have some sugar please.

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Anonymous said...

Our aims,position and roles, addresse in speech all shape the way we use the language
as in the following examples:

-I personally disapprove the motives of the war which the Israeli Government waged upon Lebanon.(Kofi Annan,as head of the General Secrateriat, addressing the UN members.)

-The evil and wicked Jews devastated the lives of poor Moslems.(Alican, a student like myself, talking to me.)

In the former;as diplomacy calls for, a formal and complex style is followed; while in the latter,as is natural among friends, thoughts are put forth in an informal and reckless way.
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Anonymous said...

In whıch grammatical structures,the communative situations are the charasteristic points to determine the structure is very significant to speak your language correctly.The first example to prove Why it is crucial can be explained by the help of knowing formal and informal language in English.We initially learn numerous grammar structures and words So that we can easily talk to someone,and say Whatever we want.Then,Why we are taught again How to talk to people highligts that to use correct grammar structure does not mean it is eligible for that sentence.The conversation below points out the importance of situation.


A:I have a favor to ask you
B:Sure,What can I do for you?
A:YOU need to write a
recommendation for me.

The second example I will profess to prove the effects of communicative situations is the requirement of knowing all the usages to state necessity properly.For instance,you can't put "must" Whenever you imply necessity it is the same for "have to" and "should".Each usage of forms means a different necessity in the sentence.

Another example on this topic is from Turkish.When you see your friend,Ali had an argument with his girlfriend,you recount it another friend in the sentence "he had argument with her"But When a 3rd friend says to you he/she saw Ali had an argument with his girlfriend,you report news to your friend in the sentence "Ali had had an argument with her"Although each usage serves past situations,meanings they give are different.

The last example to the way to understand the effect of communicative situation is from the lesson DEVELOPMENT and LEARNİNG.The teacher asked us how we can answer a question of a child.The question is that although the soap is pink,Why the foam of it is white.He said that if this question came from an adult,we would examine it in terms of chemistry,and use different words and grammar structures.For example,we can't use Simple past tense in TURKISH While answering the child(Şu şU KİMYASAL TEPKİMELER OLDU SONRA ŞU OLDU farzet),because the child ask When it happened
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Anonymous said...

As human beings ,we acquire or learn a language as we need to conmmunicate with each other.The need to have social relationships is in our nature.I believe that a language has many choices in itself.It is certain that languages are made up of vocabulary and grammar rules.Yet, we prefer to or not to use them while communicating with each other.In other words , we select some elements of a language which seem suitable for us to use while speaking.And , especially the situation which we are in affects the grammatical structure we apply to.That is , the state of us determines which grammatical structures we will use.So , we use different kinds of grammatical structures for the same communicative situations with various subjects or objects.
To exemplify these , let's think that our communicative situation is asking for permission to enter a room .In that case :
1)One of the two brothers asks the other one: "Are you there ? Can I come in ? Hey ! What are you doing ? " as the relationship between them is very intimate and away from formality.
2)A student asks one of his/her teachers before entering the teacher's room : "Could I come in?I have some questions to ask you." as the relationship between them is both a little close and informal.
3)A worker asks his/her boss : "Would you mind if I come in to ask you a question about our working hours ?" as the relationship between them is really formal and away from closeness.
Or , let's think that our communicative situation is wanting a person to turn the sound of music down .In that case :
1)One of the two brothers asks tha other one : "Hey ! Turn that music down.It is really terrible."
2)A man or women asks his/her neighbour : " Could you turn the music down please as we are really disturbed."
3)A traveller asks the other one near him or her : " Would you mind if I wanted you to turn the music down a little?"
( In these examples , we use the same grammar structures because of the similar reasons with the first examples .)
To conculude , the choices of grammatical structures we make change depending on the communicative situations we are in.

Anonymous said...

As human beings ,we acquire or learn a language as we need to conmmunicate with each other.The need to have social relationships is in our nature.I believe that a language has many choices in itself.It is certain that languages are made up of vocabulary and grammar rules.Yet, we prefer to or not to use them while communicating with each other.In other words , we select some elements of a language which seem suitable for us to use while speaking.And , especially the situation which we are in affects the grammatical structure we apply to.That is , the state of us determines which grammatical structures we will use.So , we use different kinds of grammatical structures for the same communicative situations with various subjects or objects.
To exemplify these , let's think that our communicative situation is asking for permission to enter a room .In that case :
1)One of the two brothers asks the other one: "Are you there ? Can I come in ? Hey ! What are you doing ? " as the relationship between them is very intimate and away from formality.
2)A student asks one of his/her teachers before entering the teacher's room : "Could I come in?I have some questions to ask you." as the relationship between them is both a little close and informal.
3)A worker asks his/her boss : "Would you mind if I come in to ask you a question about our working hours ?" as the relationship between them is really formal and away from closeness.
Or , let's think that our communicative situation is wanting a person to turn the sound of music down .In that case :
1)One of the two brothers asks tha other one : "Hey ! Turn that music down.It is really terrible."
2)A man or women asks his/her neighbour : " Could you turn the music down please as we are really disturbed."
3)A traveller asks the other one near him or her : " Would you mind if I wanted you to turn the music down a little?"
( In these examples , we use the same grammar structures because of the similar reasons with the first examples .)
To conculude , the choices of grammatical structures we make change depending on the communicative situations we are in.
3231050074 Meryem Simge Çengel

Anonymous said...

in some situations,when we want to say that some thing is needless, the using of "need" changes according to its situation. for example:
boy:mother,ı watered the flowers in the garden
mother:oh! you needn`t wather, because;it was raining whole evening.
In this situation,there was no need but;he did.
when we look to another situation,
for example:
mother:did you wather the flowers in the garden
boy:no,ı didn`t need to wather,because;the soil was wet.
And in this situation,there vas no need,so he didn`t do.
Another example is the recommendatıon giving the meaning with "should" ,but;in some situations with "must". for example:
Ayşe:I have a headachefor a long time.
Fatme:you should go to a doctor then.
(This situation isn`t so strong,is only an advice.) And Ayşe listens her friend`s advice and goes to the doctor.
Ayşe:ı have a headache for along time.
doctor:if it is so long, ı will give youthis medicine ,you must use it regularly.
but; in this situation ,the advice given by doctor is exactly strong if she dont use that medicine, she will be more ill.3231050046

Anonymous said...

According to me the presence of formal an informal language is a good example for this. When we communicate with a friend we don't bother what comes out of our mouths. But when it's the boss we are talking with, we choose our words so carefully.
For example when I talk on the phone with a friend, I say:
"Hi! what's up?" etc.
But if I talked with my boss on the phone, I would say :
"Good-morning,sir, how are you today?"
The grammar changes, completely as you see.

Anonymous said...

According to me the presence of formal and informal language is a good example for this. When we communicate with a friend we don't bother what comes out of our mouths. But when it's the boss we are talking with, we choose our words so carefully.
For example when I talk on the phone with a friend, I say:
"Hi! what's up?" etc.
But if I talked with my boss on the phone, I would say :
"Good-morning,sir, how are you today?"
The grammar changes, completely as you see.
my number is:3231050095 by the way

Anonymous said...

Our conversations and grammatical structure that we use is shaped by innumerable influences such as profession, age, sex,especially intimacy and status .We can give an example about status by using a dialoge between a teacher and student:(in turkish while student asking for closing the window,he/she says :sizin için bir sakıncası yoksa pencereyi kapatabilir miyim ? but while a teacher asking from his/her student ,he/she says: pencereyi kapatır mısın? As you can see teacher's conversation also includes an order into his/her request.this differance results from their status or profession. Also when we use different grammatical structure up to people with whom we are acquainted or not.We can give an example about asking what time is."tell me the time,please "that is a form which you can use asking from your friend but you can use the more complex sentence while asking from a stranger such as excuse me ,i am interrupting but i want to know what time is .Could you tell me please. All in all, i can say that we choose different grammatical structure up to the stiation that we are in even if our massage is the same . 3231050006

Anonymous said...

language is a part of life. they play together, grow up together. they naturally effect each other. so there is billions of example. let me give some.
while speaking we use lots of imperatival.they all short words. turkish or english.the rule is same. for ex: "come, go, take, put,bring". they all short,clear.it wants to be done quickly. they are daily also. who wants to speak with his wife more than 2 seconds :) these words are perfect friends of married men.
but while speaking with your wife when she wants to go his mother you should speak lengthily. for ex: romantism, moon light, beautiful, etc. even the imperativals of this situation are long: "forgive, don't leave" but it is not bad. poor man has more time. women become soft as time goes on. languge takes care of his mate{life) ha?! :)
2005 girişli 38 nolu

Anonymous said...

3231050052 There are situations existing in all cultures.For example,refusals occur in all languages.However,not all languages refuse in the same way.This is an interlingual item.
Our choices of grammatical structures vary according to the situation we are in; and this is an intralingual item.There are four examples I can give about this subject.
1st example: Alice is working for a factory as an accountant.She is responsible for the accountancy work of the firm with three other colleagues.One day she sees that there are major erros in the accounts.When reporting this to the manager, she says that "Several major errors have been made in the accounts." She uses passive because she wants to avoid mentioning the agent,her colleague,who is responsible for the wrongdoing/mistake.Also she focuses on the mistake(receiver).On the contrary, when we want to focus on the performer of an action rather than the receiver(or if we want to say the performer),we use active form. e.g.:John is responsible for the mistake. 2nd example:Mehmet,23,is talking with his grandfather.They are talking about the Ottoman Empire,era of Suleyman the Magnificent.While talking about Ottoman empire,because reference is to a time in the past not regarded as close to the present,the grandfather says this sentence:Because of the widespread prosperity,those were called the golden years.But while Mehmet is talking with his contempraries about daily events,because there is a link to present time, he uses this expression:Because of the economy,these are difficult times. 3rd example:Negative forms of perfective infinitives in formal written English are different from less formal English.In formal written English, we put negative forms(not,never,etc.) before the infinitive verbs.e.g.:During his entire term, Representative Bolski appears never to have voted in favor of extra funds for children care. In less formal English,speakers sometimes put negative forms after"have". e.g.:That woman claims to have never seen the money that turned up in her purse. 4th example: While invitating a close friend to somewhere, there is little need for negotiation. Speaker A:Do you want to go shopping tomorrow? Speaker B:Okay,as long as I'm back by five-thirty.
On the contrary, when the relationship is less clear and there is a resultant tendency to avoid a direct invitation because with directness comes the risk of rejection.Rather,what we see is a give-and-take until they come to a resolution.
S(speaker)1:You doing anything exciting this weekend?
S 2:No,I'll be around the pool here.
S 1:Okay,I'll see you.
S 2:Maybe we will barbecue one night.
...
...
...
This speech goes like this and comes up with a resolution after eight stages.
As we see, situations and the people we are talking with define the grammatical structures we use.

Anonymous said...

3231050009
we use different ways of speaking in our daily lifes.the differences of situations effect the ways of talking.our speaking way isn't same when we are talking with our teacher,friend,mother,father etc.language is a living structure so it can be effected all of the things,situations,people...So grammatical rules will occur.for different people and different situations we will use different ways.life is not easy as we think;happiness,comments,wishs,possibilities,certanity,love,hate,songs,poems require different ways.when we started this lesson last year we said that language is related to the closeness_nearness relationship.in this way we gave example of wanting money from friend,mother and a foreigner and use different grammatical structures for explain this situation.I think all of the languages can have these differences in grammatical structures.For example in turkish:we say 'naber?'when we saw a friend.but this situation changes when we saw our teacher we say'merhaba hocam nasılsınız?'.this situation is valid in english too.The grammatical strucure you use shows your closeness with the person you are talking.cultur can be the reason of this different ways of speakings.

Anonymous said...

3231050012
gramertical structures which we use while communicating with people are shaped by our feelings,thoughts,age, sex,intimacy and status.For example a 4 year-old child doesn't mind formality while spaaking.He/she uses a structure such as''I want chocolate''while speaking with his/her mother.He/she uses the same structure while speaking with patron of his/her father.It doesn't matter for her/him.another example is that a close friend is waiting you in a park but we are too late to come there.when you come there he says that:Beklemekten ağaç oldum.yurt dışından geliyosun heralde.In this example speaker implies his anger and how nuch time he waits with metaphores.But if this person isn't a close friend he will use '' çok bekledim nerde kaldın trafik sıkışıktı galiba.In this example speaker says how much he waits directly.
as you see in two example our grammertical structures changes situation to situation because of age ,closeness...

Anonymous said...

An approach to interpreting possible step in language evulation is offered functional linguistic theory.systematic functional linguistic models language levels from sounds to wording to cpmlex patterns of sociol discourse.words,gramatical rulls change according to who we speak with and where we speak.and according to this effect language may be formal or informal.for instance when we want to buy something from a public shopping, we use an informal language.we say "can you give me some cheese"(bana biraz peynir verir misin)also we make a bargaining.however when we buy something from a big market we use a formal language.we bring our cheese and we want only check.we say"how much is it?"(ne kadar)ın our conversation,the words we use chahce.another example to this subject,when we write a letter to our close friend we use an informal language.we start our letter "my dear fiend"(sevgili arkadaşım).but when we write a letter to our teacher we say"hello teacher"(merhaba öğretmenim).that is our language change from station to station.
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Anonymous said...

It is certain that communicative situation determines the grammatical structure.we use different kinds of structure to the people we are speaking to.The status and closeness play a big role to determine which kind of structure we should use as formal or informal.We can not use the same language to our teacher,father and sister.Sometimes we can use informal language but sometimes we should use formal language because the way we talk to our theacher should be different from the way we talk to our sister.The sentences which I will give below illusrate this stuations.
E.g:Today the weather is very hot; teacher.Would you mind ıf we opened the window?
(to teacher)

-Here is very hot;mum.Can you open the window?
(to mother)

-oohh my god as if I am in the hell.Why don't you open the window?sue
(to your sister)

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ESRA ASLAN

Anonymous said...

According to functionalists , the grammatical structure is mostly shaped by the communicative structure . for instance , if you are lack of Money and you will get it from your father , you would most probably use an expression like this : ’Dad,I am short of money,can you give me some,please’However, if this is your teacher,you will say ‘mr/mrs ….., I dont know how to say but I am in need of some money for the time being,would you lend me some money if it is possible,please.’on the other hand,if the person is your friend ‘Hey marie,I am broke.If you have,lend me some money and I will pay it tomorrow.As you see,when the situation changes,accordingly the grammatical structure will change.As there is a formal relationship between I and my teacher,I should use ‘would/may’ as a modal,yet with my friend I don’t have to use terms like (would you mind lending ……)In another example if you are a teacher at university , the grammatical structure you use in conversation with your students will be at an advanced or upper level , but if you are a teacher at primary school, you should use, a lower level of English in order for your lesson to be more effective.if you are giving a conference for example, you will speak using terms unknown to other professions.A further example,if you have an exam tomorrow waiting you to study and your friend invites you to her party, you would say “I would certainly come, if there weren’t an exam tomorrow .I should/must/have to/ought to be at home and study for it. But if your exam is next week. You will most probably say,‘Actually,this evening I have planned to study for the exam but I can do it another time and come to your party.’As understood from the example,for the first situation,there is a necessity for my studying and this affects the modals I use (should/must/have to),yet the next situation does not have to be expressioned with obligatory modals as we can make preference.

Anonymous said...

3231050088

According to functionalists , the grammatical structure is mostly shaped by the communicative structure . for instance , if you are lack of Money and you will get it from your father , you would most probably use an expression like this : ’Dad,I am short of money,can you give me some,please’However, if this is your teacher,you will say ‘mr/mrs ….., I dont know how to say but I am in need of some money for the time being,would you lend me some money if it is possible,please.’on the other hand,if the person is your friend ‘Hey marie,I am broke.If you have,lend me some money and I will pay it tomorrow.As you see,when the situation changes,accordingly the grammatical structure will change.As there is a formal relationship between I and my teacher,I should use ‘would/may’ as a modal,yet with my friend I don’t have to use terms like (would you mind lending ……)In another example if you are a teacher at university , the grammatical structure you use in conversation with your students will be at an advanced or upper level , but if you are a teacher at primary school, you should use, a lower level of English in order for your lesson to be more effective.if you are giving a conference for example, you will speak using terms unknown to other professions.A further example,if you have an exam tomorrow waiting you to study and your friend invites you to her party, you would say “I would certainly come, if there weren’t an exam tomorrow .I should/must/have to/ought to be at home and study for it. But if your exam is next week. You will most probably say,‘Actually,this evening I have planned to study for the exam but I can do it another time and come to your party.’As understood from the example,for the first situation,there is a necessity for my studying and this affects the modals I use (should/must/have to),yet the next situation does not have to be expressioned with obligatory modals as we can make preference.

3231050082 said...

Here is my first example about how situations affect our use of grammar:
A student to her teacher:
-I couldn't understand this subject well,could you explain it once more?
To one of her friends:
-Ugh!I can't get it.Come on,you tell me.

And here is the second example:
To the doorkeeper:
-Could you buy a carton of milk for me?
To your sister:
-Get a carton of milk while coming home.

Anonymous said...

Canan GÜLBEY
3231040135
Communicative situation has a big role on the way of language usage. We generally determine grammatical structure according to the situation. For example, think that you are asking for a pencil from one of your close friends. You won’t say “could you lend me your pencil?” you will probably say “give me your pencil or gimme the pen (the most direct)”. Suppose that, you are at the post Office and you need a pen for writing the address on the envelope. If you say “ gimme the pen man? “ he will probably look your face in a great surprise thinking that you are not normal. We see the change of structure in our daily lives. For instance, think that, you want to go to the cinema with your friends but you need some money. You will talk to your father but he is a bit angry today. On an ordinary day, you can ask for money in an informal way but he seems to get angry for trivial reasons today. If you don’t change the informal way of speaking and say “ baba biraz para versene, yarın sinemaya gideceğiz bizimkilerle “ this sentence won’t work because it doesn’t have a sense. He will probably think that you have wasted your pocket money. In addition this sentence will make him think that you are spending a lot of money. If you change the structure in a such way he will be pleased: “ Babacığım yarın arkadaşlarla sinemaya gitmek istiyoruz da biraz paraya ihtiyacım var. Ama yoksa önemli değil. Gitmesem de olur.” this sentence is likely to have an impact on your dad. He will think you are a very sensible and sensitive child as you don’t insist on going to the cinema. He will also affected by your politeness.

Anonymous said...

3231050036 said that: Grammatik structures are created by humans and our environment guides us to create our language and its grammatik rules.Of course language exists not only by grammer rules but also combining syntax,morphology,phonetics,semantics and lots of rules.
When we look at these combinations we can see that every language has different voices..
As a term,grammar is a typical sentence has three distinct parts:Subject+verb+complement/object and some languages hasve different distinct parts.
I want to give some examples of these structures in english and in turkish languages.
1-asking money to my mother
--Hey mumy you can give some money to me?
2-asking money to my teacher
--I'm so sorry of this but Could you lend me some money teacher?
3-asking money to a friend
--Hey you rich student.Why don't you give some money to me?
We created some new languages in a language which designates our degree of relationship with people..

Gülten Dogan said...

The first situation: You are at home and want to drink a cup of tee. And you say to your mother: Anne yaa, bi çay dolduruversene.

The second situation: You are a guest by your friend. You drank your tee and want to drink another one and you say: Bir bardak çay daha alabilir miyim?

The third situation: You are with your boy or girl friend and go to a luxury cafe. You want to order a cup of tee and then you say: Bir bardak çay lütfen!

The situations which are given above shape our words, sentences, namely each sound which comes out from our mouth. Out of expressing different structure we attend to our intonation too. Although all the sentences express the same wish- I want to drink a cup of tee-, we profit from different grammatical structures which won’t be suitable in other situation: You can’t order a cup of tee in a way in which you ask from your mother:
To waiter: Yaa bi çay dolduruversene kardeş şurdan. Such an order would be taken as a rude behavior or saying to the mother ‘bir çay lütfen’ would sound both funny and strange
By the help of these situations it can be understood that situations play a pivotal role in using the language

3231050097 said...

English and other languages have many grammatical structures possible for using in the same situations but we only choose one of them and this choice is effected by our mood, social status, target...
I will give two examples. The structures here are effected by the mood and the social status.
We see a friend struggling to make something in the kitchen that we dont understand what it is, so we want to help him. Our question would probably be that. "What are you doing?".
However the structure of the question will change in a situation like that:It is late at night. We have to get up early tomorrow and we are trying to sleep but our friend is trying to make something in the kitchen and this process is starting to get really noisy. We are frustrated now and wish to learn what he is doing. We will shout at him and ask that question:"What the hell are you doing?"
Gramattical structure is also effected by the status differences. For instance when a boss wants their workers to do their job more quickly he just say "HURRY" ;however, while he is talking with another boss and wants the same thing according to the deal, he will ask that: Is it possible for you to make your job more quickly?

3231050014 said...

Our usage of sentences changes according to situation we are in or distance/closeness between with whom we speak.We use different ways of language rules(syntax, semantic etc.)We use more formal way when we speak one whom we have never seen before.For example I am on a bus and it is very hot.So I say the man politely:

-Pardon Sir,but it is very hot.Would you mind opening the window,please?

But,if the one is my friend I say:

- ohhff!too HOTTT.Ahmet it will be super if you open the window.
So I use a informal way.

As for another way, we use metaphor by implying.For example; the teacher writes some things on the board and those are too small to read.So we say teacher:(in
Turkish):
- Hocam biraz daha büyük yazabilir misiniz lütfen?

But if a friend of us writes we say:
-Aliii, biraz daha küçük yaz,çok büyük yazıyosun tahtada yer kalmıyo oğlum:).
Thus different situations need different usage of language.

Thank You.

Anonymous said...

3231030084
The grammatical structure is shaped by the communicative structure. So communicative situation has a big role on the way of language.Because situations effect the ways of our speaking.For instance we use informal structure while speaking with our mother, father,etc..On the other hand we use more formal structure while speaking with our teacher,or a stranger.There are some examples:
(in a train compartment)
Woman:May I have a look at your newspaper?
Man :Yes, certainly.Here you are. (formal)

(to his friend)
Woman:Can I have a look at your newspaper.
Man :Yes, certainly. Here you are. (informal)

or:

(at a breakfast table)
Son :Mum,can you pass me the butter?
Mother:Sure, here you are.
(informal)

(on the street)
Stranger:Could you please direct me to the Alien's Department?
(formal)

or:

A student to his teacher:
-Would you mind lending me your dictionary?

To his close friend:

-Can you lend me your dictionary?

Anonymous said...

vv

Anonymous said...

as we all know that situations, statues and other conditions define our way of using oral language connecting with grammatical structure. for example, talking with a close friend differs from talking with any other person.

"hey man, what's up?"(with a close friend)

"hello, how are you today ,Mr. ....?"(a formal speech)

shortly, the environment and the atmosphere which we are in shape the usage of our spoken language.

3231050033

Anonymous said...

The usage of gramatical structures changes according to the situations in which we use them ; that is, grammar is something that people use in order to produce coherent communication. Here are some examples in which situations have an influence on the use of grammar:
- You are in a bus. It's so hot inside that you want your friend to open the window, you say " Can you open the window?"
But if we ask to a stranger, we say "Would you be so kind to open the window?"
- In Turkish when we communicate with someone we know or a person of the same age with us, we address to him/her "sen", but if we speak to a person who is older than us, we can say "siz" which is more formal than "sen".
- Also, we use the passive form to make emphasis in sentences. For instance, "He was killed by a knife". What is important here is the action than the subject who does the action.
3231050089

Anonymous said...

Functionalists maintain that the communicative situation motivates, constrains or otherwise determines grammatical structure….
According to this citation,There are different ways of communication which relate to persons whom we are close or not.
In our social life we have different closeness with people around us.For example,
When I saw one of my friends,
I say,”Hey! How are things? “
But when I saw one of my friends,
I say,”Hello,How are you teacher?”

To a close friend:
“Damla! I have taken your pencil,I’ll give it later okay! “
To a stranger:
“Excuse me! May I use your pencil?”

When I speak to my parents:
“uh mommy! Don’t give me that advice.I know everything!”
When I speak to my teacher:
“Thank you for your advice.I’ll do that.

Arkadaşlarımızla herhangi bir sınav hakkında konuşurken,
“Ne bu yaa! Sorular çok kazıktı.”
Sınav olduğumuz dersin öğretmeniyle konuşurken,
“Hocam,sorular çok zordu.!”
Like this we use different modal verbs when we are speaking someone which relates to whose closeness….
326505009

Anonymous said...

Functionalists’ theoritical outlook is distinctive. They analyses entire communicative sutuation, the purpose of the speech event, its participants, its discourse context behind grammatical structure. That a structural or formal approach is not merely limited to an artificially restricted data base, but is inadequate even as a structural account is maintained by them. Functionalism purports not to model but to explain. And the explanation is grounded in the communicative situation.

They rely on a pragmatic view of language as social interaction. The
approach focuses on the rules which govern verbal interaction, seen as a form of cooperative activity, and on the rules which govern the linguistic expressions that are used as instruments of this activity.

The situation, the intention and the distance between you motivates, constrains, or otherwise determines the grammatical structure you use. That is the way you choose your sentence, your sentence’s grammar. You decide if your sentence would be formal or informal due to the person or profession of the person you talk, ıntention of yourself and the intimacy between you.
you use different grammar with your teacher and a different one with your mother.some forms of English are appropriate for business letters, reports, job interviews, resumes, books, and magazines, while others are not. you say,"She has never done it" instead "She ain't never done it" when talking to a prospective employer or writing a report.Oral (spoken) communication consists of direct or transmitted speech between two or more people. Oral communications are more likely to be misinterpreted than written ones, were regarded as informal but are now often recorded and treated as formal. Missing from such recordings is the body language consisting of facial expressions and gestures.formal oral communications:selection, grievance or appraisal interviews, or when negotiating. i remamber that last year you asked us a question about that subject.ıt was how we would ask for money from different parts of our life. and some of them included formal types. because i ask my teacher for money in a different way and my mother other. that is true for all our life.

Anonymous said...

Anonymous said...
Functionalists’ theoritical outlook is distinctive. They analyses entire communicative sutuation, the purpose of the speech event, its participants, its discourse context behind grammatical structure. That a structural or formal approach is not merely limited to an artificially restricted data base, but is inadequate even as a structural account is maintained by them. Functionalism purports not to model but to explain. And the explanation is grounded in the communicative situation.

They rely on a pragmatic view of language as social interaction. The
approach focuses on the rules which govern verbal interaction, seen as a form of cooperative activity, and on the rules which govern the linguistic expressions that are used as instruments of this activity.

The situation, the intention and the distance between you motivates, constrains, or otherwise determines the grammatical structure you use. That is the way you choose your sentence, your sentence’s grammar. You decide if your sentence would be formal or informal due to the person or profession of the person you talk, ıntention of yourself and the intimacy between you.
you use different grammar with your teacher and a different one with your mother.some forms of English are appropriate for business letters, reports, job interviews, resumes, books, and magazines, while others are not. you say,"She has never done it" instead "She ain't never done it" when talking to a prospective employer or writing a report.Oral (spoken) communication consists of direct or transmitted speech between two or more people. Oral communications are more likely to be misinterpreted than written ones, were regarded as informal but are now often recorded and treated as formal. Missing from such recordings is the body language consisting of facial expressions and gestures.formal oral communications:selection, grievance or appraisal interviews, or when negotiating. i remamber that last year you asked us a question about that subject.ıt was how we would ask for money from different parts of our life. and some of them included formal types. because i ask my teacher for money in a different way and my mother other. that is true for all our life.

3231050007

Anonymous said...

We change grammatical rules according to the person whom we make conservation to orwe change it according to the situation which we are in.Our sincerity,being close or not,being formal or informal directly affect this situation example:
when we want something from some of our close friend we say"can you give me your black bag?"or when we want something else from our boss or a formal person we say"Excuse me,I have a problem about money.would you mind if I wanted a little amount of money?"as it seems we can change grmmatical rules according to whatever situation we are in.
3231050053

Anonymous said...

Grammatical rules may show differences in whichever situation we are in.In addition to this grammatical rules can be different according to person whom we talk about something.if we are close and if we are in a sincere situation we certainly say
"hey!my friend I have money problem you can solve easily.So can you borrow me money?is it okey?"
In other situation else,that is if we are talking with a formal person(our boss or a foreign person)
"Excuse me,I hope it doesn't trouble you.do you mind if I leave office a bit early as I will have some special guests in the evening."
3231050059

Anonymous said...

3231040022 EMRULLAH KOCATAŞ language is based on context.grammar and vocabulary are used according with context.because meaning is the main cause of language.Firstly human has idea and then he need to express that idea so the first stage in language is idea.idea cant represent anything in its own.If it is in a context,it will be useful.namely,not only do context make idea meaningful but also it selects which grammatical structure and words are used.for instance,while talking about your father with your friends you say ''dad'',but in a job negotiation you say 'father'.In same way,mummy or mother.while advising,you use 'should'.in a different point,while giving command,you use 'must or have to'.namely we can say that context determines which structure and word are used.3231040022 EMRULLAH KOCATAŞ

Anonymous said...

the situation effects the use of a particular grammatical structure.how_?
in Turkish, we can sometimes,in the situation of hierarchy,we call somebody "SİZ" rather than "SEN".
and we have "Anlam Kayması". for example; we mean future time by using present simple. e.g= i come tomorrow yarın gelirim) this s a grammatical mistake in english.
when comparing Turkish and English,we can easily reaise that the usage of relative clauses is very different and distant.sometimes,this causes that,we need two sentence in Turkish to explain the exact meaning of one sentence in English.
these may be the result of the nomadic life stye of Old Turks.they want the practical way.this painness shows itself in the language.structure of mouth is also a reason for affecting language.for example;in Turkish sounds,there is a rule "En Az Caba Yasası".that brings "Büyük-Küçük Ünlü Uyumu".
sincerey,
3231050039

Anonymous said...

rgsdfghny

Anonymous said...

In many languages the grammatical structure is used differently in different situations.Also in English it is the same.For instance,modal verbs play an imporyant role in the sentence.We can be easily misunderstood when we use an incorrect modal verb.The use of modal verbs varies from person to person we are communicating to.Let me give you some examples. Example1:a)I must go to school. b)I have to go to school. These two sentences mean necessity and obligatin but used in different situations.We usde the first one whwn it is personal obligation whereas we used the second one when there are some external reasons out of our control. Example2:a)I could swim.ı was at the age of 15. b)I could swim.I will decide when we go to the lake. In the sentences above we use the same modal verb but we mean different things.One of them is used to tell a past ability,other one is used to tell a possibility.3231050121

Anonymous said...

hilal kayıkçı saıd... we use dıfferent grammatıcal structures accordıng to the sıtuatıons we are ın.for example whıle we are talkıng wıth our frıends,we dont need to use a formal language.that means the words we use changes fromperson to person ın terms of ıntımacy.for example whıle askıng permıssıon from my mother:mum I wıll be wıth my frıends thıs nıght to prepare my homework so ıs there any problem wıth that?but ıf we are talkıng wıth our teacher or dırector of the school,we use 'can,please,sorry,excuse me,would you mınd...'.these formal language shows the dıfference between two.'Would you mınd ıf I am botherıng but I have a problem.please can you tell me ıf I can stay wıth my frıend and do ıt together?'
another example:
_open the wındow ıt ıs too hot zeynep(to a close frıend)
_excuse me can you please open the wındow?(to a stranger on a bus)

Anonymous said...

Our cultur or the relationship between the speakers affect our grammatical structure very much and it is so naturel.
-when we ask for permission from our father we say.
*dady ı'll be late tonight.
-when asking from a teacher in a dormitory:
*excuse me teacher ı have to do stg very important. could you give me permissipn for my coming a little bit late.
-when asking a friend:
*ıs it ok. if ı come a little bit late.
3231050098
veysel

Anonymous said...

3231050041
-as everybody said- our speaking way totally depends on the situatin we are in.and we arrange our sentences or grammatical structures according to it. for example
a person in our ages speaks in a formal way with his lecturer;
'may I go out?'
but another conversation with his parents will be less formal;
'can I go out tonight?'
and with his friends this conversation carries no formal meaning;
'let's go out tonight'
(perhaps there is no need to use a modal!!)
from this point of view, we can say that language is related to directly context.

Anonymous said...

According to functionalists "The communicative situation motivates, constrains or determines grammatical structure." That is, it changes according to the situations we exist, our aims, the people we are in contact with and the importance of the topic. You resemble this people's wearing different clothes while doing sport, going a job meal or going a party. How a person can wear the same dress in everywhere is not suitable, this is not suitable also to talk the same manner. For example we sometimes use formal language and we sometimes use informal language.
These are the examples:

>In dormitory your roommate is listening music loudly and you can't study lesson.
1)Could you listen the music a bit silently?(you have just met with him/her and shouldn't be rude.)
2)Can you listen the music silently?( when you are angry but also you want to express your uncomfortness.)
3)Turn down the music!(when you are very angry)

>A child not understanding a question asks:
1)Could you explain this question again?(with teacher)
2)Come here and explain me this question.(with a close friend)
3)Can you explain this question?(with mother or father)

>You use these statements the different people who spill tea or coffee on you accidentally
1)Ok! It's not problem.(If your boss spills)
2)Hey! You burned me! Look out!( If your friend spills)
3)Oh mummy!What did you do?(If your mother spills)

>When you run into a friend, you say in Turkish "Naber kız, nasıl gidiyor?"
When you run into your teacher, you say "Merhaba öğretmenim, nasılsınız?"

3212040013 YELİZ TOP

Anonymous said...

ı really agree with thıs theory.most of tımes dıfferent situations change the way use of our garmmatıcal structures.for example when we are askin directıons
a-to a stranger we start;could you please tell me how can ı .........
b-to a friend we start;can you tell me how can ı............
moreover while we are writin a letter
a-to a boss we star with;ı am so happy that you gave me a feedback...........
b-to a frıend we start;ı'm so disappointed for not writing back...........
3231050067

Anonymous said...

3231050023
Especially in Turkish, there is a big difference between words used for them while somebody calls the others. We call our close friends with their first names while saying to strangers you , lady or sir. It is used differently in order to clarify the distance between the other people and sincerity or respect to them.
In addition to that, “you’’ has two different meaning in our native language ;
First one is singular “you’’ : It shows us the one talked to is a close friend or a sincere one.
Second one is plural “you’’ :It is obvious that a person is distant from the speaker or they are sincere but the speaker respects to him / her.

Anonymous said...

We use different language structures to different people by taking into consideration our closeness to them.That is;we try to use more formal language when we speak to a stranger,informal language to our friend,family,etc.For example;
-I am in debt nowadays.Give me some money.I'll try to give it back to you as soon as possible.(to your brother)

I am in debt nowadays.could you give me some money.I'll try to give it back to you in a short time.(to your boss)
Another example can be;
-I don't know how to go to Emek cinema.Do you know where it is?(to your friend)

Could you please explain to me where Emek cinema is?(to a stranger)
_3231050047_

3231050005 merve bülbül said...

-Communicative situationmotivates grammatical structure-
Certainly we can establish relationship between communicative style and the grammatical structure used in conversations.This connection can be regarded in terms of the type of relationship between speakers-it means that we can seperate two kinds-formal and informal contexts.
I can give an example from the last year-that is-Ellipsis.In informal conversations complete sentences are not always used especially if the meaning is clear.It is suitable for causable replies between acquaintances.It is better not to use it in formal contexts.Speakers use ellipsis when they feel certain a listener can understand the message without a full form.
As in the examples below:
1)-Is there any chance of a lift in your car?
Instead of this:
-Any chance of a lift?
2)In casual conversations we can often leave out the subject "I" at the beginning of "didn't tell".Subject and auxilary verbs can be left out.
"Ready yet?","Finished?"
or "Any tea left?"We don't prefer to ask this question to a waitress instead we ask it in long and full form.

Anonymous said...

Fırat Kaya
3231050091
when using the language we choose the words initially according to the place or situation we will use it. now that is the matter of fucntional approach.. to show the selection of the words we can examine the greetings because when people are greeting each other the language they use can display us the selection and functional approach ..
- when we are greeting a friend , we dont have to behave or talk in a formal way because we feel ourselfclose to the friend and think that we say 'hey man ,what da fuc' u doing here' or can say 'what'sup my dog '

-and now think that you have been invited to have the seat of the minister of The Grand National Assembly , u cannt simply greet the deputies just as u geereted ur friend. you have to be formal , you should start with 'DEAR'

Anonymous said...

According to our situations,we use different grammatical structures.for ex.we dont use similar languages when we are writing and speaking.While we are writing,we use more formal languages than speaking.We use shorter and simpler words,simpler,non-complete sentences.But in writen language,we use long,complete sentences.The person that we are writing or speaking to is important also.
Situations,motivates,constrains determine our language as the functionalists maintain.There are some examples which support this theory.
1.-You must study your exams,if you dont,you will fail.(a mother to her child)
-You have to study your exams to pass the exams.(a teacher to students)
-You should study your exam,if you pass the exam,you will relax.(a friend to his friend)
2.-For the weather forecast,it is going to rain.And it will be 11 degree today.(when we are speaking about the weather with our boss.)
-Oh,it's really bad.Today the weather is rainy and I can't go anywhere.(when we are speaking with our close friend)
-After a long time,it is going to rain.You should take your umbrellas and wear your raincots when you are coming to school tomorrow.(when we are speaking with our students)
3.-Dün izlediğim film harikaydı gerçekten.Filmin her sahnesinde ağladım.Mutlaka gitmelisin bu filme.(to a friend)
-Film izlenmeye değer,duygusal bir film.Gitmenizi tavsiye ederim.(to a stranger who asks our opinion about the film)
3212040025 Aysel Çelik

Anonymous said...

3231050019

the ways of using of language can change in some communication situations. when ı am speaking with my mom ı use a different language and when ı am speaking with my teacher ı use different language. ı mean that peaple change their language type according to sincerity with the people.

examples:

-- heyyy!! what's up man? (with a friend)

-- hi sir. how are you today? (with a teacher)

-- sorry. may you tell me the way... (with somebody who is unknown)

Anonymous said...

3231050077


Usually people select theır words ın sıtuatıons they are.Our relationships with other people,our sincerity or our status affects our communication language.For ınstance whıle we are talkıng our teacher or boss,we try to be kınd mostly.but on the other hand a communıcatıon among sıncerıty frıends or ın famıly we aren t ınterested ın words,we use.

----hello! may ı see the boss (ın a company,talkıng wıth secretary of boss)

----hımmmm how ıs the weather..?(ın the bus,talkıng wıth some one near you)

----okey!ı wıll try to come early(talkıng wıth mother,unkındly)

nilay 3231050062 said...

Firstly,I would like to say that the situation of communication and our relationship with other people influence the way we use language.It is possible to witness this state in almost all of the languages in the world.
As I can speak Turkish and English,the examples have been chosen from these two languages:

*I'm really cold,would you mind if I close the window?(if you are asking to your boss)

*Can't you see that I'm freezing, go and close the window now!!!(if you are speaking to your brother)

*...kendine çok iyi bak cevap yazmayı unutma öptüm hoşçakal...(at the end of a letter to a friend)

*...gereğinin yapılmasını saygılarımla arz ederim...(at the end of a formal letter)

As you see above,people and situation can change the form of language we use and this is functional approach to acquisition!!!

3231050076 said...

In order to generate language appropriately for certain situations, and to have strategies to communicate effectively,we need to have knowledge of the rules of use.There are many factors such as the situation we are in,the person we are talking to and the subject that affect our choices of language use.
For example;many people choose to use ‘WHY DON’T YOU…?’ while giving advice to their close friends or relatives.But they prefer ‘I STRONGLY RECOMMEND YOU TO…’ in formal situations.The difference between those structures is rather clear.
Another example can be like this:
When you try to teach English to your brother you can easily get annoyed and say:
‘I am in doubt about your intelligence!’
But while teaching your students you have to control yourself .When the students don’t understand you most probably say:
‘Okey, it is not a problem.Don’t worry!I will explain one more time.’
Although the situation is almost the same in both cases,the response of the teacher is very different.The difference stems from the relations in two examples.Functional approach can easily be understood from those examples!

Anonymous said...

The way of our communication changes according to the situation we are in;sometimes the communication is motivated,constrained,determined.. as Nichols said.Namely,personal features of people and subject we talk about and place and situation we are in form of our grammatical structure.For example:
*While talking with a tourist we use a simple structure but our structure is more good-styled than first one when talked with a professor(linguists,literati..).At this point,since the tourist doesn`t know completely our language structure,communication is constrained and it`s motivated in talking with a professor because of his/her communication way.At the first talking, structure is more simple,general.. and at the second it`s impressive,detailed..3231050045

Anonymous said...

3231040098

Construction of language and the sentences that we use is mainly shaped according to whom we are talking to. By construction i meant chosing of verbs, modals, type of sentence as imperative or request and etc... and also the volume of our sound is changes from person to another person that we are communicating with. To give example you can not use the same grammatical structure for both an ordinary one and an VIP person like President of a country even for your lover :) it is totally changes

Anonymous said...

As we know, grammer is the study of the rules governing the use of a language and these rules are called the grammer of the language.There are various structure in the grammer, and also as the fonctionalist say the situations we are in affect the grammatical structures used.Our usage of structures change according to the people we communicate, their ages, status, clossness between you are some of the effective factors. As I search examples about this subject, I see that they are generally about being formal, informal and being polite.Take modal verbs as an example, we can see the differences between structures;
- Can I see the Manager? (it is informal)
- Could I see the Manager?(polite)
- May I see the Manager?(formal)
- Might I see the Manager?(very formal)
or,
- Will you do my shopping?(informal)
- Would you mind working overtime?(polite,formal)
Altough they are the same question, because of the different situation various structures are applied to.

Anonymous said...

the last comment3231050060

Anonymous said...

Language ıs a way of express thıngs that u need but when u express urself u must be aware of some principles that arranged ur meanıng and the combınatıon of other main rules of language(grammer9.ın thıs sense u use a langage that represents ur attıtude towards ur envıronment,ı mean space relatıonship.ıf u fınd a person close to u use an unformal language cos of the intımacy between u.when we are speakıng wıth a close frıend we use a complex usage lıke ellıpssıs,heads and tails but when we are speakıng just wıth a boss or a teacher or an allıen we must use an explicit form for having beıbg understood by the speaker who ıs opposıte us such a hıerarcy shape or language as well even when we are wıth chıldren we hange our language as well wıth usıng some strange letters lıke 'SH'letters behınd the words for makıng our sentences more lovely lıke the vıdeo u made us watched ın lesson.as we see ın te comments that my dear frıends wrote down we can see these differences easıly.3231050043

ercan 3231040019 said...

one of the determiners of the way of communicating is the situation in which speaker participate.we consider with whom we talk to when
communicating. of course we don't use same grammer and same style to everybody. ıt depends on person. for example nobody use same
style to his father and his friend or to other people...
for instance; you want to go fishing and decide to invite 2 persons,your best friend and your teacher:
to your best friend:
-Aga, bu hafta sonu balığa gidiyoruz sen de geliyorsun. tüm programlarını iptal et.
to your teacher:
-hocam hafta sonu arkadaşlarla balık tutmaya gideceğiz.eğer bir programınız yoksa bize eşlik ederr misiniz?

you see the change of the way of speaking. it means that the place, time, persons affect the communication.
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Anonymous said...

3231050058

Language is a very complex system and you have to ponder on lots of factors whıle even formıng a sentence.because the structure of your sentences depends on lots of things such as the situatıon you are ın,the person whom you are talking to,the kınd of relatıonshıp between you and her or hım.even the gender of the receıver ıs a very promınent factor ın communıcatıon.
for ınstance
thınk of yourself as a female.when ın the case of wantıng a pen belongs to you.ıt falls down ın the course of a lesson.you need ıt at that tıme,so you have to want ıt from the frıend that sıts next to you.ıt ıs very probable that ıf the frıend ıs a female,too,you say

-gıve me that pen
and when she gıves ıt to you,you even dont need to say thanks,but the sıtuatıon dıffers when the frıend ıs a male.fırstly the tone of your voıce changes.then you need harshly to add "gentle" words to your sentence.ın short;you can fınd yourself whıle speakıng as thıs:

-so sorry to ınterrupt you ıbn the course of the lesson.would you mınd ıf I want from you the pen of mıne?

you can see the dıfference very obvıously.and there are lots of cases correctıng thıs ıdea about language and communıcatıon.

Anonymous said...

The communicative situation motivates, constrains or determines grammatical structure." That is, it changes according to the situations we exist, our aims, the people we are in contact with and the importance of the topic. for example;
Give me a pen!(teacher to her students)
-Can I borrow your pen?( a student to a friend)
-Would you give me your pen for a moment, please? (a new student who has just come to the class to another student)
ı think, this example summarises the subject very good..
3231050016 said.....

Anonymous said...

Language means communication.And ıt changes from the situation which is in,person who communicating and her/his intention,expectation.All these differences shape the using language.For example:


-heyy lazy kid!Stop watching tv and carry this bag.(with brother)

-oh please,help me carrying this bag.It likes a corpse.(with a close friend)

-Excuse me,Could you help me carrying this bag?(with a stranger)

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Anonymous said...

1) Language is a communication device that shows universal similarities like gestures,tone,or implications.Although we could not understand in written language easily,we could express different meanings while speaking with emphasizing words.I want to give an example in turkish:
-Yarın bize misafir gelecek
-Öyle mi...(bewilderment)
or
-Hepsini bir yumrukla yere serdim.
-Öyle mi...(a mocking response)
The words are same,but the meaning is different.I think it is an example that shows the flexibility of language.
2)Intimacy between speakers defines the style of language.Grammatical structure changes according to condition.for instance:
-Would you mind opening the door?
Can you open the door?
It is possible to understand situation of the speakers without listening rest of the conversation

Anonymous said...

3231050024 11.08 pm

Anonymous said...

The way we use language changes accordıng to our relationship with other people. thınk that: you wıll talk to your lecturer for the dead lıne of an assesment. ın thıs case,you wıll use a formal language, lıke: 'excuse me for ınterruptıng your study, but ı have an excuse for deadlıne of the assement.... ' In other case, ıf you talk to your frıend, you can say that: 'hey men shut up your bıg mounth! Do not ınterrupt me agaın! ' as you see, the hierarchy affects the way we speak. 3231040050

Anonymous said...

language doesnt include only grammatical structures.besides them,language gains importance with tones and expressions we use.we are considered with our usage of language.for example if we use rude words towards our teachers it will not be a respectful behaviour(HOCA SAAT KAÇ? gibi..HOCAM SAATİNİZ VARSA ÖĞRENEBİLİR MİYİM? denmesi gerekir)but when we are with our friend spaeking formally is not appreciated(ÖRNEĞİN,SAMİMİ ARKADAŞLARIMIZLA RAHATLIKLA ,EMREDER GİBİ, "SAAT KAÇ?" DİYEBİLİRİZ..FAKAT SAATİNİZ VAR MI?GİBİSİNDEN SORU SORARSAK "NE ULAN,BU NE MESAFE" GİBİ BİR CEVAP ALBİLİRİZ)
The way we use our language shows the level of relationship;and we should know well to speak according to this relationship
:)040087

Ondort said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Ondort said...

For this example, I want to use part of my Linguistics home work; first Karagöz have argue with Hacivat while he doesn’t know him.

Karagöz : Geri ver Altun’umu!
Hacivat : Senin Altun’unu yidiler, o pok oldu… (This dialogue happened between two men who have problem so, Karagöz is very angry to Hacivat.)

Then, secondly talks to Ayşe Hatun who is woman that Karagöz falls in love and in this dialogue Karagöz uses all his politeness to Ayşe Hatun.

Karagöz : Ben tırnakçığı onun için istemem benim daşta, malda gözüm yoktur. Tırnakçığı isterim andan sevdiğim kadına el uzatırım. Ayşe kadun, benum ol, elini vir, bebicüklenelüm, bahtiyar olalım… (Then in this request has ceremony of marriage so, Karagöz is self-possessed and little excited.)

Also, I uploaded the video of dialogues to YouTube video site:

1st dialogue: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e64H_uaA5D8
2nd dialogue: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvA8Nk0HDWg

Ondort said...

3231030109

Anonymous said...

Which grammatical structure we use is up to receiver.ıf he/she is higher status we try to be the most polite if we are speaking with a friend for example, we become relax.Such as our using grammatical structure,our chasen words while we are speaking are very important to.I want to give example from Turkish:
we are history teacher and our subject is Canakkale Front and results of the battle in a high-school.A student says;
-eğer çanakkale Savaşı olmasaydı Bolşevik devrimi gerçekleşmezdi.
We respond as a teacher
-Tarihteki olaylar tek bir nedene bağlanmaz her olayın altında bir sürü neden vardır.
If this event happens at a univesity;
we respond;
-Bu tip çıkarsamalar yapmak Tarih bilimine aykırı.Tarihte olaylar kümülatif ilerler.Bir olayın bir çok parametresi vardır......

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